FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY
FOUNDED BY MARSHALL FIELD, 1893
THE LIBRARY OF THE
VOLUME IX JUL 1 2 1937 NUMBER 3
UNIVERSITY OF ILIJNOIS
USEFUL PLANTS AND DRUGS OF
IRAN AND IRAQ
WELLCOME HISTORICAL MEDICAL MUSEUM, LONDON
WITH NOTES BY
CURATOR OP PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY
B. E. DAHLGREN
CHIEF CURATOR, DEPARTMENT OF BOTANY
CHICAGO, U. S. A.
JUNE 30, 1937
PRINTED IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
BY FIELD MUSEUM PRESS
I. Preface 73
II. Introduction 75
III. Descriptions 79
IV. Some prescriptions from Isfahan, Iran 200
V. Alphabetical list of native names with Latin equivalents . 217
During 1934 as leader of the Field Museum Anthropological
Expedition to the Near East, in addition to about 10,000 herbarium
specimens, from Trans-Jordan, Palestine, Syria, Iraq, and Iran, I
collected a number of useful plants and drugs in Iran and Iraq.
The late Dr. Berthold Laufer, then Curator of Anthropology, had
requested me to make this collection and to obtain such information
as could be had regarding their use in the treatment of diseases and
in prescriptions for various ailments.
In Iran specimens were purchased in the native markets of
Tehran and Isfahan. In each case the Persian name with its English
transliteration and the use of the drug or herb was recorded. While
guests of Dr. Erich Schmidt at Rayy during September, 1934,
we obtained specimens in Tehran. Dr. Walter P. Kennedy of the
Royal College of Medicine in Baghdad and Mr. George Miles, member
of the archaeological expedition staff at Rayy, assisted in this work.
At Isfahan Mirza Muhammad Ali Khan, ninety-five-year-old
doctor, very kindly consented to dictate his prescriptions (pp.
200-216) for various ailments. He began to practice medicine at the
age of twenty after spending about five years in a local school. His
father, several uncles, and his grandfather were medical practitioners
using the oral tradition and two large handwritten volumes of
prescriptions, which I examined at his home in the depths of the
labyrinthine Ghetto. At Isfahan the dictation in Persian was
recorded by Juda Rabbi Hedvat of the Alliance Israelite.
The translation was prepared in part by Dr. A. H. Mookree and
by Dr. A. H. K. Sassani, Iran Government scholar at the University
of Chicago. Dr. H. W. Bailey of the School of Oriental Studies,
University of London, revised the Persian characters and the
The assistance of Mr. Paul C. Standley, Associate Curator of
Botany in Field Museum, who checked the botanical names in the
text, and of Miss Elizabeth Reniff in the preparation of the report
is gratefully acknowledged.
Mr. A. R. Horwood of Kew Herbarium very kindly identified
some of the specimens.
The spelling of place names conforms to the system adopted by
the British Permanent Committee on Geographical Names, pub-
lished in London by the Royal Geographical Society.
74 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. IX
To conform to current practice Iran has been substituted for
Persia and Irani for Persian except in historical references.
In Iraq Dr. Hydari, Director of the Rustam Agricultural Experi-
mental Farm at Hinaidi near Baghdad, presented to Field Museum
a number of varieties of Gossypium, Hordeum, and Triticum. Dr.
Calvin K. Staudt, Director of the American School for Boys in
Baghdad, contributed information regarding local drugs.
As a result of Dr. Laufer's death, arrangements had to be made
for the study and publication of the material desired by him without
the benefit of his collaboration. Other collections of drugs from
southwestern Asia had been studied by Dr. David Hooper of the
Wellcome Historical Medical Museum in London. I therefore
visited him to discuss the question of the identification of the col-
lections from Iran and Iraq. Dr. Hooper, who a few years previously
had published an account of the drugs of Iran, consented to prepare
a report on the Field Museum material and this publication is the
result. To his account, I have in certain cases added some notes
(H.F.) and, from sources indicated in each instance, mostly from
Evan Guest, a mention of some of the more important useful plants
not a part of the collection studied by Dr. Hooper. Dr. Casey A.
Wood has published a translation of the "Tadhkirat" of Ali ibn Isa
of Baghdad (circa A.D. 940-1010) under the title "Memorandum
Book of a Tenth-Century Oculist," Chicago, 1936. This publica-
tion contains (pp. 47-78) a list of drugs and other remedial agents
which can be compared with the data in this report.
Because of the difficulties involved in recording the colloquial
names for the various plants and drugs and their transliterations,
there are inevitably certain discrepancies, but I believe that the
list of native names in alphabetical order with their Latin equivalents
should be of value to other collectors. If the native name is not
in the list, the reader should refer to tukhm (seeds), gul-i (flowers),
gil-i (earth), or rishah (root), as the name may appear in these forms.
The useful plants and materia medica of southwestern Asia may
be considered to be fairly well known and no new drug plants are
included in the list, but it is hoped that this report will be of value
in making existing information even more accessible and in encourag-
ing medical officers to publish additional information.
The rapid advance of westernization in Iran under Reza Shah
Pahlevi and in Iraq under King Ghazi necessitates the accurate
recording of rapidly disappearing primitive medical folklore.
USEFUL PLANTS AND DRUGS
OF IRAN AND IRAQ
The material embodied in the present catalogue is the result of
three collections made in Iran and Iraq during the past eight years.
The first was made by Henry Field, leader of the Field Museum
Anthropological Expedition to the Near East, 1934. These speci-
mens were obtained mostly from the bazaars of Tehran, Isfahan,
and Baghdad, while some were gathered in fields and gardens where
medicinal plants were cultivated. Lists accompanied these plants,
stating their vernacular names and local properties and uses. The
second collection was made in 1933 by Captain P. Johnston-Saint,
of the Wellcome Historical Medical Museum in London; this
consisted of 200 vegetable, animal, and mineral medicines from the
markets of Putrus and Tehran.
The third collection was made by Dr. J. M. Cowan and Dr. C. D.
Darlington in the spring of 1929 (Kew Bulletin, 1930, pp. 49-68).
The drugs were all of vegetable origin and were found in the bazaars
of Tehran, Hamadan, and Kermanshah.
The specimens of the first-named collection are specified in the
catalogue under the name of "Field" followed by the number of the
drug in the list. The numbers in the Field collection not followed by
place names are from Tehran. Those followed by the letter A were
obtained in Baghdad, Iraq. The specimens in the second collection
are marked by "W.H.M.M." (Wellcome Historical Medical Museum)
followed by the registered number. Those collected by Cowan and
Darlington are distinguished by the letters "K.B." followed by a
number referring to the page in the Bulletin of Miscellaneous Informa-
tion, No. 6, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, 1931, pp. 299-344, where
the drug is described.
An opportunity is thus given of studying crude drugs and com-
paring them with the names of those found in the ancient literature
of Iran where materia medica has long been a special science. One
of the first and most important of the Persian works on pharmacology
is the "Kitabulabnyat an haqa 'iq-uladviyat," or "Book of the Foun-
dations of the True Properties of the Remedies," written about A.D.
970 by the physician Abu Mansur, who during one of his journeys
76 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. IX
visited India. B. Laufer ("Sino-Iranica," 1919) says, "This is not only
the earliest Persian work on the subject but the oldest production
in prose of the Neo-Persian literature. The text has been examined
by R. Seligmann from a unique manuscript of Vienna dated 1055,
the oldest extant Persian manuscript." There is a translation by
Abdul-Chaliq Achundow from Baku. This has been rendered into
German and published by Dr. R. Kobert in his "Historische: Die
pharmacologischen Grundsatze des Abu Mansur Muwaffak, 1893."
References to this work are noted under the name "Achundow."
In the year 1681 there was published in Paris the "Pharmaco-
poeia Persica, ex idiomate Persico in Latinum conversa, opus
missionariis, mercatoribus, caeterisque Regionum Orientalium,
Lustratoribus necessarium nee non Europaeis Nationibus perutile."
This was written by a Carmelite monk, Frater Angelus. There is a
short list of a few raw drugs, but the work contains chiefly pre-
scriptions for pharmaceutical preparations, many of which are made
up of fifteen to twenty ingredients.
A valuable work of more recent date is one published in Tehran
in 1874. It was compiled by Professor J. L. Schlimmer, of the
Polytechnic College of Persia, Chief Medical Officer to the Persian
Army, and Sanitary Officer, Tehran. It is written in French, and
entitled "Terminologie Me'dico-Pharmaceutique et Anthropologique
Francaise-Persane." This contains a very full list of medicinal
plants of Iran with identifications made by Boissier, de Candolle,
Haussknecht, and other eminent European pharmacologists and
Dr. J. E. T. Aitchison has botanically explored portions of Iran
and the neighboring regions, and his "Notes on the Products of
Western Afghanistan and of North-Eastern Persia," published in
Edinburgh in 1890, has been most useful for reference. Dr. William
Dymock, for many years Medical Storekeeper for Bombay, had
exceptional opportunities of studying the drugs coming into India
from the Persian Gulf, and his great knowledge of Oriental languages,
in addition to his medical and botanical training, placed him in the
front rank of Indian pharmacognosists. His "Vegetable Materia
Medica of Western India" (1885) and, later, his "Pharmacographia
Indica" are storehouses of information on the trade, natural history,
and composition of Oriental drugs. Use has also been made of the
"Flora of Syria, Palestine and Sinai" by the Reverend G. E. Post
(1896), Boissier's "Flora Orientalis," and "A Working List of the
Flowering Plants of Baluchistan," by Mr. I. H. Burkill (1909).
PLANTS AND DRUGS OF IRAN AND IRAQ 77
Many useful notes on drugs and Persian and Turki names of
North Persian plants occur in a series of articles by B. Gilliat-Smith
and W. B. Turrill in K.B. 1930, Nos. 7-10, entitled "On the Flora
of the Nearer East: A Contribution to Our Knowledge of the
Flora of Azerbaidjan, North Persia."
ABBREVIATIONS AND PUBLICATION REFERENCES
Abu Mansur -"Book of the Foundations of the True Properties of the Re-
Achundow Translation of Abu Mansur's work, rendered into German by
R. Robert (1893).
Acosta, Christobal, of Burgundy Traveler in the East; d. 1580.
Afg. Afghanistan .
Ait. Aitchison, J. E. T. "Notes on the Products of Western Afghanistan
and N. E. Persia," Edinburgh (1890).
Amoen. Exot. 1712; see Kampfer.
Bellew "From the Indus to the Tigris," London (1874).
Boiss. Boissier. "Flora Orientalis," Geneva (1867-84).
B. P. "British Pharmacopoeia" (1914).
Brissemoret, A. Chemical investigator (1907-26).
C. See Cowan.
Colloquios Orta, Garcia da, edited by Sir Clements Markham (1913).
Connold "British Oak Galls" (1922).
Cowan Cowan, J. M. Collected plants in Persia (1929).
Duk. Dukani, language of the Deccan, India.
Dymock Dymock, William. "Vegetable Materia Medica of Western India"
(1885); "Pharmacographia Indica" (1891).
Ebert Ebert, A. E. (1840-1906). American pharmacist.
Field Field collection in Field Museum of Natural History.
Fl. Br. Ind. "Flora of British India" (1875-98).
G. See Guest.
Gilliat-Smith Gilliat-Smith, B. and Turrill, W. B. "On the Flora of the
Nearer East," K. B. 1930, Nos. 7-10.
Guest Guest, Evan. "Plants and Plant Products of Iraq" (1933).
Honigberger Honigberger, J. M. "Thirty-five Years in the East," London
Howard Houard, C. "Les Zoocecidies des Plantes d'Afrique, d'Asie et
HugJies-Buller Collected plants in Baluchistan (1908).
Ibn Baitar Great Arabian traveler and botanist (1197-1248).
78 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. IX
/. H. B Burkill, I. H. "A Working List of the Flowering Plants of Balu-
Ind. bazaars Indian bazaars.
Irvine, W. "Materia Medica of Patna" (1848).
Kdmpfer "Amoenitates Exoticae, Lemgoviae" (1712).
K. B. or Kew Bull Kew Bulletin.
Khory Khory and Katrak. "Materia Medica of India," Bombay (1903).
Robert Kobert, R. "Composition and Uses of Saponin" (1911).
Laufer "Sino-Iranica" (1919).
Layard Layard, Henry. "Early Adventures in Persia" (1853).
Le Bode Le Bode, C. A. "Travels in Lauristan and Arabistan."
Leh Aitchison. "Trade Products of Leh" (1874).
Mad. M adras.
Makhjan-el-Adwiya. 1769, reprinted 1824.
Mai. Malayali (South India).
Mason "Burma and Its People" (1882).
Modern Gr. Modern Greek.
Pharmacog. "Pharmacographia," by Fluckiger and Hanbury (1874).
Pharm. Journ. "Pharmaceutical Journal."
Ph. Ind. "Pharmacographia Indica" (1891).
Ph. Pers. "Pharmacopoeia Persica" (1681).
Post Post, G. E. "Flora of Syria, Palestine and Sinai"' (1896).
Punj. Pun j ab .
Razis or Rhazes Islamic physician (850-923). "Continens."
Royle Royle, J. R. "Illustrations of Himalayan Botany" (1839).
Schl. Schlimmer, J. L. "Terminologie Medico-Pharmaceutique et Anthro-
pologique Franc.aise-Persane" (1874).
Set. Pa. Hanbury, D. "Science Papers" (1876).
Sino-Iranica See Laufer.
Stapf Stapf, Otto (1857-1933). Botanical papers in Kew Bulletin, etc.
Tschirch Tschirch, A. "Handbuch der Pharmakognosie" (1912).
Warden Warden, C. J. H. Calcutta (1851-1901), joint editor of "Pharmaco-
Wiesner "Die Rohstoffe des Pflanzenreiches," ed. 4 (1927).
W.H.M.M. Collection in Wellcome Historical Medical Museum, London.
Y. B. Pharm. "Year Book of Pharmacy."
Zellner Zellner, J. Phytochemical investigator (1923-27).
PLANTS AND DRUGS OF IRAN AND IRAQ 79
Abrus precatorius L. (Leguminosae)
Chashm-i-khurus (Pers.); Rati (Hind.); Jequirity (Tupi, Brazil);
Paternoster seed, Indian licorice.
Schl.; Fl. Br. Ind. 2: 175; Ph. Ind. 1: 430.
W.H.M.M. 150736; K.B. 301.
This plant is cosmopolitan in the tropics and grows in India.
The well-known scarlet seeds, with a black spot at one end, are
exported from India to Iran and other countries in the West, and are
made into necklaces and rosaries. They were formerly used in India
as a standard weight by goldsmiths, the average weight of a seed
being 1.7 grams.
In medicine the seeds are said to have hilarant properties, and
in Iran they are classified among the poisons. The seeds contain
toxalbumin, a protein body. The leaves and root contain sugars
(D. Hooper, Pharm. Journ. 1894, 937).
Acacia Senegal Willd. (Leguminosae)
Samgh-i-arzhan, Angum (Teh.); Samgh Arabi (Ar., Pers., Iraq);
Field 78A, 257; 30, 70 (Iraq); W.H.M.M. 150716.
Acacia Senegal is the chief source of gum arabic of commerce,
but in the Eastern bazaars many gums are sold which are procured
from various other trees. Schlimmer in his "Terminologie" speaks of
Gummi nostras or indigenous gum obtained from cherry and prune
Acanthophyllum squarrosum Boiss. (Caryophyllaceae)
Shir Kalan (Teh.) ; the root.
This is one of the Irani soap-roots. It is smaller than the usual
roots supplied by species of Gypsophylla, as it occurs in pieces 3 to
18 mm. in diameter, has an exterior of light brown, twisted spirally,
with a white, starchy interior showing yellowish, woody rays.
The root has a slightly bitter taste and contains small quantities
80 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. IX
Achillea Santolina L. (Compositae)
Gul-i-bumadaran (Teh.); Bui madaran (Punj.); Birinjasaf (Ind.
Ait.; I.H.B.; Schl.; Boiss. 2: 266; Ph. Ind. 2: 272.
Field 236; W.H.M.M. 150802; K.B. 302.
This plant is widely distributed in the East and in northern
Africa, where the flowering tops, with a pleasant aroma, are collected
and used as a carminative and tonic. In Tehran they are given as
an infusion for chest complaints. In Baluchistan the drug is given
to children for colic. The strong odor of the herb, like that of other
composites, drives away fleas and noxious insects.
Acorus Calamus L. (Araceae)
Aksir-i-turki, Ajll-i-turki (Teh.); Ighir iggur (Ar.); Acoron (Gr.);
Gora vach (Hind.); Bach, Warch, trade names in Leh by Punjabis;
calamus or sweet flag root.
Field 174; W.H.M.M. 150826.
A native of eastern Europe and Central Asia this has become
widely diffused by cultivation. The rhizome has long been esteemed
as a valuable medicine in India and Iran, whence probably its use
spread to Europe. It is a bitter aromatic stimulant, tonic, and
carminative. In Tehran it is reputed to be an excellent remedy for
rheumatism. On account of its aroma the powdered root is regarded
as an insectifuge and insecticide, and the volatile oil is used for
scenting snuff and for the preparation of aromatic vinegar.
Adansonia digitata Juss. (Bombacaceae)
The baobab or cream of tartar tree is a native of tropical Africa
introduced into the East Indies. The substance sent under the name
of Futfuteh is in lumps of brownish vegetable matter consisting of
the fibrous pulp surrounding the seeds inside the gourd-like fruit.
The fresh pulp is acid and astringent and is given in cases of diarrhea
PLANTS AND DRUGS OF IRAN AND IRAQ 81
Adiantum Capillus-Verreris L. (Polypodiaceae)
Parr-i-siyavash, Kashburat (Teh.); Kashburat-el-bir, "coriander
of the wall" (Pers.); Krafas-al-bir, Shar-al-anat (Iraq); Kansburaj,
Moohar-khas (Ind. bazaars); the fronds.
Ait.; Post; Schl.; Ph. Ind. 3: 624.
Field 49; W.H.M.M. 150714; K.B. 302.
The maidenhair fern is found in Iran, Afghanistan, the north-
western Himalayas, and western China, but other species of ferns
are used medicinally and are called by similar names. The fronds
of the fern are usually supplied, but the rhizome is credited with
expectorant properties and is given for relieving difficult respiration
and for spasms in whooping cough.
A maidenhair fern decoction is served as a cooling drink during
the summer (H.F.).
Qarch (Teh.); Kriwarik (Turk.); dried mushrooms.
Field 242; W.H.M.M. 150775.
This is a portion of a hard fungus, gray brown on the outside
and whitish within, 4 to 5 inches across. A notation is made on
one sample that it is a vermifuge. Schlimmer identifies "Ghartsche"
as Agaricus esculentus, one of the edible mushrooms, of which there
are numerous species. For agaricum of the Greeks, Ghariqun, see
Alhagi camelorum Fisch. (Leguminosae)
Tar-anjubin (Teh.); "green honey"; manna.
Field 1; W.H.M.M. 150888.
The camel's thorn (Kar shutur, Pers.) is a thorny shrub found
in the deserts of Iran, Syria, and Egypt. A saccharine exudation
forms on the plant. It is shaken off the branches, collected, and
used as a sweetmeat and in medicine. It is supposed to be the
"greenish cake" of Layard's "Travels," but this secretion was
collected from oak trees (see Quercus). The white grains of manna
separated from the pods, stalks, and leaves contain chiefly cane sugar;
this is administered as a laxative and expectorant.
82 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. IX
Allium Akaka Gmel. (Liliaceae)
Valik (Teh.); the plant.
This plant is found in Europe and northern Asia, and is the
Welec or Weleque of Ehlicher. The specimen is represented by the
entire plant: leaves, pinkish green flowers, and bulbs, having a
strong alliaceous odor.
Allium Cepa L. (Liliaceae)
Tukhm-i-piyaz (Teh.); Basal (Ar.); Goondina (Pers.); Piaz
(Kurd.); the seeds.
Field 41, 415; W.H.M.M. 150831.
The onion is probably the earliest kind of food plant and is widely
cultivated in tropical, subtropical, and temperate countries. Its
small, black, corrugated seeds are sold in all the bazaars of Iran and
are regarded as a demulcent and stimulant. Boiled with sugar and
almond oil they are given as a purgative during typhoid fever (H.F.).
Allium sativum L. (Liliaceae)
Tukhm-i-tarrah (Teh.); (tarrah is the Persian name for potherb);
Boiss. 5: 229.
Field 40; W.H.M.M. 150883; K.B. 302.
Under this name the black, angular seeds of garlic are sold in
the bazaars, having similar properties to those of the onion. They
are eaten with cheese.
Sir (Teh., Iraq); Som (Ar.); Thum (Turk.); Lehsan (Hind.);
Field 47A, 77, 115 (Iraq).
This is the bulb of the garlic, containing several daughter bulbs
or cloves. They have a peculiarly pungent and disagreeable odor and
an acrid and burning taste. The garlic is par excellence the potherb
of the East, aids digestion, and is a gastric stimulant. Three kinds
of the plant are grown in Iran: Bustani (garden), Bari (wild), and
PLANTS AND DRUGS OF IRAN AND IRAQ 83
Aloe Perryi Baker (Liliaceae)
Sabr-i-zard (Teh.); Sibar, Musabbar (Ar.); Bol shiah (Hind.);
This specimen is a piece of Socotrine aloes prepared from the
leaves of the plant. It is a black or liverish colored extract with a
brownish yellow dust. Aloes is a well-known purgative, introduced
by Arab traders in early times.
Althaea lavateraefolia DC. (Malvaceae)
Rishah-i-khatmi (Ham.); the root.
Achundow; Schl.; Boiss. 1: 828; Post; Ait.; I.H.B.
This plant grows in Egypt, Iran, and Afghanistan. Aitchison
says it is cultivated not only for the showiness of its flowers but for
its petals, which are collected as they fall off the plant and are called
Gul-i-khatmi, the seeds Tukhm-i-khatml. The root from Hamadan
agrees with that of the above-named species. In Baghdad the roots
(Erok Chatma) are said to belong to the hollyhock (Althaea rosea L.),
but Achundow refers the drug to A. ficifolia Cav. The root is fibrous,
light-colored, and becomes mucilaginous when soaked in water. It is
considered strengthening, and is probably an Irani substitute for the
root of the marshmallow of Europe (Althaea officinalis L.).
Althaea sp. (Malvaceae)
Gul-i-khatmi (Teh.); the flowers.
Field 20; W.H.M.M. 150828.
Tukhm-i-khatmi (Isf.) ; the carpels.
Field 401, 35 (Iraq).
These drugs are doubtless derived from more than one species
of Althaea. The hollyhock (A. rosea L.), A. ficifolia Cav., and A.
lavateraefolia DC., and various hybrids yield medicinal flowers and
seeds. In Baluchistan the flowers of A. pallida Wald. & Kit. are
collected. They are yellow and pink, with hairy calyces. The seeds,
or properly carpels, are brown, reniform, and hairy; the margin is
marked with fan-like ridges. All parts of these plants are mucilag-
84 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. IX
inous and demulcent. The flowers, often mixed with linseed and
boiled, are made into poultices for boils, and the seeds or carpels
are given as a tea for coughs and inflammation of the chest (H.F.).
Alyssum campestre L. (Cruciferae)
Gudamah, Gudamah-i-shahri, Gudamah-i-sherazi (Teh.);
Qodumah (Ar.); Ghodaoumche chirazi (Schl.); hedge garlic, the
Field 3; W.H.M.M. 150727, 150868; K.B. 303.
The seeds of this small plant, common in Iran and Iraq, are
light brown, lens-shaped, 2 by 1.5 mm., with a yellowish gray border.
They become coated with semi-opaque mucilage when placed in
water. Mixed with Lallemantia Royleana Benth., Pyrus Cydonia
L., and Plantago major L., the seeds are given in an infusion for
Amaranthus paniculatus L. (Amarantaceae)
Taj-i-khurus (Teh.); Tukhm-taj-i-khurus (Isf.); flower heads
and seeds of cockscomb or star flower.
Field 92, 425; W.H.M.M. 150874.
The chaffy flower heads are white with shades of pink or light
brown. The black, shining, lens-shaped seeds are eaten, and are
medicinal. Cockscomb leaves form a wholesome potherb, and are
taken as a tea to relieve the chest.
Amomum subulatum Roxb. (Zingiberaceae)
Hil-i-qurab (Teh., Isf.); Hil (Ar.); Ela (Sans.); hill or Nepal
Field 421; W.H.M.M. 150729.
The capsules are ovate and bluntly triangular, containing numer-
ous round or angular brown seeds, closely packed. The odor of the
seeds is camphoraceous and agreeable. Hill cardamoms are used as a
substitute for the smaller and more aromatic Malabar cardamoms
of southern India (Elettaria Cardamomum Maton). They are both
used as a spice and for their carminative and stimulating properties.
As a cure for general debility they are sometimes mixed with
Belleric myrobalans (H.F.).
PLANTS AND DRUGS OF IRAN AND IRAQ 85
Anacyclus Pyrethrum DC. (Compositae)
Agirgarha (Teh., Isf.); Akalkara (Hind.); pellitory of Spain;
Field 410; W.H.M.M. 150791.
Pellitory root, obtained in northern Africa, is nearly cylindrical
in shape, tapering near the tip, with a tuft of hairs or the remains of
leaves toward the crown. When chewed the drug has a pungent
taste, exciting a flow of saliva. It is prescribed for toothache (H.F.).
Anamirta paniculata Coleb. (Menispermaceae)
Marg-i-mahi, "fish poison" (Teh.); Zahar (Iraq); the berries.
Field 138, 101 (Iraq); W.H.M.M. 150746.
Cocculus indicus or Levant berries are yielded by a shrub indigen-
ous to eastern India and the Malay Archipelago. The fruits are
round or kidney-shaped, dark brown without, each containing a
white seed with oily, bitter endosperm. The power possessed by the
fruits, when thrown into water, of stupefying fish has long been
known, and is due to the poisonous crystalline principle, picrotoxin,
in the seed. The berries are used in the East for poisoning dogs
and fish and for making ointments to destroy pediculi on the skin.
Anthemis Wiedemanniana Fisch. & Mey. (Compositae)
Gul-i-babuna (Ham.); flower heads.
Achundow; Ait.; Post; Schl.; Boiss. 2: 286; Pharmacog. 346; Ph.
Ind. 2: 275; I.H.B.
Banoi is probably a contraction of Babuna or Babunaj, a name for
camomile and other medicinal composites, including the above.
Irani camomile flowers are generally obtained from Matricaria
Chamomilla L. (q.v.).
Apium graveolens L. (Umbelliferae)
Tukhm-i-karafs (Teh.); Buzz-ul-karaphs (Ar.); Asil-a-krasb
(Afg.); Karafs (Iraq); Ajmud (Hind.); Udasaliyun (Gr.); wild
86 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. IX
Field 177; W.H.M.M. 150808.
Celery is a plant of the northwestern Himalayas and Iran, and is
cultivated for its fruit, leaf stalks, and roots. The seeds, or properly
fruits, are greenish yellow or brown, and have a mint-like aroma and
a somewhat pungent and bitter taste. The fruit is carminative,
aromatic, and tonic. In Tehran the drug is placed in boiling water
and the steam inhaled for headache. The fruits contain apiin, a
Arctium Lappa L. (Compositae)
-. j \ L \j <!>_ j
Rishah-i-baba-Adam (Teh.); the root. Bardane (Teh.); Semen
Bardanae (English Herbal 1730) ; the fruits.
Field 234; K.B. 304.
The burdock plant is found in Syria, Iran, and Khorasan as we!
as in Europe. The root under the name of Risha Baba Adam o
"Root of Father Adam" is quoted in Schlimmer's "Terminologie/'am
is regarded throughout India as depurative and antiphlogistic. In
Tehran the root, with that of sarsaparilla, is used as a remedy for
syphilis. The drug has had a considerable reputation in ancien
times, but from a chemical examination by Zellner (1924) there is no
indication of any substance in the root being physiologically active
Areca Catechu L. (Palmae)
Fufal (Teh., AT.); Papal (Pers.); Sopari (Hind.); Pinang (Mai.)
betel nuts, nuts of the Areca palm.
Areca nuts are used everywhere in the East as a masticatory
They are a gentle stimulant, astringent, and taenifuge, increase the
flow of saliva, lessen perspiration, sweeten the breath, and strengthen
the gums. They contain tannin and two active alkaloids, arecoline
and arecaine. Mixed with sugar and coriander, they are given for
induction of labor (H.F.).
Aristolochia longa L. (Aristolochiaceae)
Zaravand-i-tavil (Ham., Teh.) ; the roots.
Achundow; Schl.; Ph. Pers.; Post; Ph. Ind. 3: 165.
W.H.M.M. 150855; K.B. 304.
PLANTS AND DRUGS OF IRAN AND IRAQ 87
The roots of this and other species of birthwort are highly valued
medicines in the East. The drug from Iran is a cylindrical and con-
torted root, 12 mm. in diameter, showing in section the peculiar
wedge-shaped bundles of the wood. It has a somewhat bitter and
pungent taste. The Aristolochias are stimulating tonics and are
often given for snake bites. Locally the root is used for amenorrhea
and as a pectoral and stomachic.
Aristolochia rotunda L. (Aristolochiaceae)
Nukhud-i-alvand (Teh., Isf.); Nukhund-i-alavandi (Ar.); Zara-
vand-i-gird (Pers.) ; the roots.
The roots are tuberous, brownish or gray, round in shape like
a small cottage loaf, with a broad base, a top narrow and marked with
pit-like scars and the remains of fallen stems. They are hard, horny,
and starchy, and have an acrid odor and taste. The drug is given as
a tonic, diuretic, emmenagogue, and vermifuge. In Iraq A. Mauro-
rum L. is used by the tribes to provide an antiseptic for healing
wounds, and also for curing scab in sheep (G.).
Artemisia maritima L. (Compositae)
Darmanah (Teh.); Afsant-el-bahara (Ar.); santonica, wormseed.
Ph. Ind. 2: 288; Greenish and Maplethorpe, Y.B.Pharm. 1923,
Field 179 ; K.B. 304.
The dried, unexpanded flower heads of various species of Arte-
misia often mixed with A. vulgaris L. and water (H.F.) are used
as a vermifuge. The provinces of Turkestan and Kurdistan supply
large quantities. Aitchison says that A. maritima L. and A. campes-
tris are to be found everywhere in northeastern Iran. The rootstocks
and dry stems are used for fuel, and the flower heads collected from
the villages around Tehran are sold in the bazaars. Santonin, the
active, anthelmintic principle of wormseed, is now manufactured
near the town of Chimkent in Turkestan (Ph. Ind. 2: 288).
Artemisia vulgaris L. (Compositae)
Afsantin (Teh.); Afsantm-i-hindi (Ar.); wormwood.
Ph. Ind. 2:284.
88 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. IX
Field 180; W.H.M.M. 150753; K.B. 305.
The specimens of this drug are broken pieces of stalks, leaves,
and flower heads, matted together with woolly hairs. They have a
fragrant aroma and bitter taste. The origin of this ancient drug,
described by Mohammedan physicians, is probably A. absinthium
L., but other species are used. A. ponticum, a plant growing in
Europe and in the Caucasus region, is quoted by Schlimmer as the
source of the drug sold in his day in Tehran. Absinthium is a bitter,
stomachic tonic; it increases the appetite and promotes digestion.
The Persian name of these plants has been given to absinthe, a
well-known liqueur used in Europe.
Asarum europaeum L. (Aristolochiaceae)
Asarun (Teh.); snake root.
This drug consists of rhizomes, thicker than a pencil, knotted,
with circular marks above and long, light brown rootlets below. The
wood is yellowish, bitter, and rather fragrant. The drug is employed
as an emetic, diaphoretic, diuretic, and purgative, and is prescribed
for rheumatism and apoplexy.
Asparagus adscendens Roxb. (Liliaceae)
Marchubah, Khushak (Ham.); Satavar, Satarmul, Shakakula
micari (Hind.); Sufed musli, of commerce (Bom.); white musali.
Ait.; Schl.; Post; Boiss. 5: 339; Ph. Ind. 3: 482.
Field 416; K.B. 305.
The roots of several species of Asparagus are used in the East for
medicine, including those of A. officinalis L., A. sarmentosus Willd.,
and A. racemosus Willd. The root from Hamadan is in long, thin
pieces, 2 to 3 mm. in diameter, ivory-white, hard, horny, wrinkled
longitudinally, and somewhat twisted. It swells in water and
becomes mucilaginous. The root is considered to have stimulant
and diaphoretic properties. As a diaphoretic it is mixed with sheep's
fat and rubbed on the chest (H.F.).
Asparagus officinalis L. (Liliaceae)
Haliyun (Teh.) ; common asparagus berries.
Bikh-i-hallmun (Teh.); asparagus root.
Field 161; W.H.M.M. 150741.
The berries are scarlet, the size of a pea, holding two seeds in
each cell. They contain grape sugar and sparganein, a coloring
matter; the seeds contain a fixed oil and aromatic resin.
The roots are twisted, black on the outside, white and horny
within, mucilaginous when soaked in water, with a mawkish and
sweet taste. In Tehran the roots are burned and the smoke is
inhaled to relieve toothache.
Asperugo procumbens L. (Boraginaceae)
Aj w *3>d J jU
Bad-i-ranjah-buyah, Bar ranjubah (Teh.); madwort, the herb.
Schl.; Boiss. 4: 275; Post, 540; I.H.B.
Field 198; W.H.M.M. 150807; K.B. 306.
This is a prostrate herb in Arabia, Iran, Europe, and North
Africa. It is common in cultivated fields and gardens. The fruiting
calyx is reticulate- veined, with acute, ciliate lobes. The substitution
of this plant for the well-known, fragrant drug, Badrandj-boia, a
remedy for asthma, still persists in Iran. Schlimmer writing about
Asperugo says, "This plant, dried, is sold by the druggists of Tehran
under the false name of Badrendj-bou-yeh, which is the true name
of Melissa cedronella. I have never been able to understand the
reason of this sophistication, to which Dr. Haussknecht was the
first to call attention, because the true Melissa is largely cultivated
in the gardens about Tehran."
Astragalus fasciculaefolius Boiss. (Leguminosae)
Kunjidah-i-surkh u safid (Teh.); Kunjad, Gujar (Bom.); Kun-
jada, "resin for bleeding" (Ait.); Anzarut (Ar.); Sarcocolla, "flesh
glue" (Gr.); Kohl Farsi (Persian collyrium), Kohl Kirmani (Kirmani
collyrium); the gum.
Ait. 18; Ph. Ind. 1: 476; D. Hooper, Journ. As. Soc. Bengal, 9,
No. 4, April, 1913, pp. 177-181; Achundow; Schl.; Boiss. 2: 396.
W.H.M.M. 150788; K.B. 306.
This is a sweet exudation secreted by the above plant obtained
from Kurdistan and exported to India and elsewhere. It occurs in
pale, yellowish brown fragments, brittle in consistency, soluble in
90 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. IX
water and alcohol, odorless but with a sweetish taste. It contains a
principle similar to glycyrrhizin. Sarcocolla forms a plaster long
used by Parsi bone-setters, and is applied locally to the ears and
face to allay neuralgic pains. Aitchison says the gum is used by
ladies of the harem to improve their appearance and to give the skin
a gloss (see "Sarcocolla" by D. Hooper, Journ. As. Soc. Bengal,
Vol. 9, 1913, pp. 177-181).
Astragalus gummifer Labill. (Leguminosae)
Kathira (Teh.); Qatera, Katira gond (Hind.); gum Tragacanth.
Field 128; W.H.M.M. 150861.
The small, branching, thorny shrubs of Astragalus are especially
to be found in Asiatic Turkey and Iran, where they form one of the
most characteristic features of the vegetation. The above and other
species yield, when incised, flat, ribbon-shaped pieces, or, when
punctured, vermiform tears. The tragacanth gum from Tehran
is in clean white ribbons, typical of the best commercial quality,
largely used in medicine and confectionery.
Astragalus hamosus L. (Leguminosae)
Iklil (Teh.); Iklil-ul-malik (Ar.); Adhafir-aj-jian, Adhafir-ash-
shaitan (Iraq); Iklil-ul-mulk (Bom.); Aketi (Ham.); the curved pods.
Field 145; W.H.M.M. 150889; K.B. 342.
The origin of this drug has been referred to various species of
Melilotus and Trigonella which have curved pods. Those received
from Tehran and Hamadan are horseshoe-shaped, 2.5 cm. in length,
grayish brown, smooth, curved outward, grooved on both sides, and
beaked; they are divided by a central partition and contain grayish
yellow, rhomboidal seeds, notched at one end and with black spots.
The pods are called in Iraq "Fairies' Nails" or "Devil's Claws,"
and are used for various disorders, but chiefly as a suppurative and
astringent. Sometimes they are made into a plaster for reducing
tumorous and painful swellings. Mixed with Viola sp., they are
taken before purgation (H.F.).
Bambusa arundinacea L. (Gramineae)
Tabashlr-i-qalami (Teh.); Tabashira (Ar.); Bans lochan (Hind.);
mineral concretion in stems of bamboo.
PLANTS AND DRUGS OF IRAN AND IRAQ 91
Tabashir is a siliceous concretion found in the hollow stems of
bamboo plants, and is a valuable Hindu medicine. It occurs as
hard, white, opaque, mineral-like fragments of various shapes. The
sample from Tehran, bearing the above vernacular name, consisted
of burnt bones, and was not true tabashir. It could not, however,
be considered a fraudulent substitute for the authentic drug, as it
was labeled "Calcined bones for toothpowder" (H.F.).
Berberis vulgaris L. (Berberidaceae)
Zirishk-i-gull (Ham., Teh.); Zarishk (Hind., Bom.); the fruits.
Achundow; Ait.; Schl.; Boiss. 1: 103; Ph. Ind. 1: 65.
W.H.M.M. 150841; K.B. 306.
The Indian barberry is a common shrub growing in the hilly
districts of India and Iran, and the berries are largely collected and
appreciated as a condiment or made into jam. In the Punjab the
fruits and preserve are called Zirishk-tursh (sour currants) to dis-
tinguish them in the trade from the small, black, dried grapes known
in Europe as currants or corinths. The consumption of these acid
fruits in medicine is said to relieve itch and other skin complaints.
A specimen of dried Berberis fruits in the collections of the
American School for Boys, Baghdad, bears the label Zirishk. Bar-
berries are used as a decoction for general health and to sweeten
the breath (H.F.).
Beta vulgaris L. (Chenopodiaceae)
Tukhm-i-chuqundur (Teh.); Chuk-andar (Hind.); common beet.
Field 28 (Iraq); W.H.M.M. 150787.
These are small, cup-shaped fruits with light brown seeds, which
taste saltish. In Iran they are cultivated largely as a vegetable.
The seeds of the beet are sold in Indian bazaars for medicinal use
under the name of Chukander (Ph. Ind. 3: 148).
There are several varieties grown in Iraq:
(1) Beetroot. Chukundar (Turk.). The root is eaten.
(2) Spinach beet. Siliq (Turk.); common. The leaves are cooked
and eaten as a substitute for spinach.
(3) Sugar beet. Shuwandar sukari. Climate of the Baghdad
area is unsuitable for cultivation.
92 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. IX
(4) Mangel-wurzel should succeed in Kurdistan.
(5) Wild beets, known as Silaijah or Silaigah.
Boswellia Carterii Bird. (Burseraceae)
Kundur (Teh.) ; Seta Kundura (Hind.) ; frankincense or olibanum.
There are several kinds of this fragrant oleo-gum-resin found in
commerce. Kundura zakara, "male frankincense," is in reddish or
deep yellow, circular tears; Kundura unsa, "female frankincense,"
is in yellowish white, translucent or pale tears; Kisher Kundur or
Dhupa of the bazaars occurs in scaly pieces of the bark coated with
the exudation. Olibanum is used chiefly as incense; it is an ingredient
in plasters; a dose of half a misqal (35 grains) is said to improve the
Brassica campestris L. var. Napus Bab. (Cruciferae)
Tukhm-i-shalgham (Teh.); Sarsun (Hind.); rape or colza seed.
Field 54 (Iraq); W.H.M.M. 150856.
This is an important crop in India and elsewhere, cultivated
chiefly for its seed. Rape seeds are small, brownish or reddish brown,
2 mm. in diameter, smooth. They yield by expression a bland oil
used as an emollient and in cooking and lighting.
Brassica (Sinapis) nigra (L.) Koch, and B. alba Rabenh. (Cruci-
Mustard, now a widespread weed, is of Eurasian origin. The
powdered seeds are an important condiment, used in curries, and
medicinally in the preparation of poultices and plasters. Mustard is
taken internally as an emetic in cases of narcotic poisoning (G.).
Butea frondosa Roxb. (Leguminosae)
Barg-i-hind Iran, Parakeh-i-hindi (Teh.); Palaspapado (Duk.);
Palas Keby (Hind.) ; seeds of bastard teak or Bengal kino tree.
Field 181; W.H.M.M. 150818.
PLANTS AND DRUGS OF IRAN AND IRAQ 93
These seeds are flat, reddish brown, 5 by 3 cm., containing white
cotyledons. The seeds are an Indian remedy for tapeworm. The
powdered seeds are prescribed two days after a dose of wormseed.
Caesalpinia Bonducella Roxb. (Leguminosae)
Tukhm-i-iblis (Teh.); Khaza-i-iblis, "Devil's testicles"; Bonduk-
i-hindi (Ar.); Kat karanj (Hind.) ; bonduc nut, nicker tree.
Bonduc seeds are globular, smooth, dull gray in color, and yield
an oil by expression. They are worn as necklaces for charms, and the
kernels are bitter, tonic, antiperiodic, and anthelmintic.
Calamintha graveolens Benth. (Labiatae)
Terengamisk(?) (Teh.); Faranj mishk or Biranj mishk; Palang
mishk has been referred to Ocimum sanctum L., and Palenguemeeke
by Schlimmer to Dracocephalum Kotschyi Boiss.
Boiss. 4: 583; Post 624.
Field 32; K.B. 306.
This species of calamint frequents the Mediterranean region,
Syria, Asia Minor, Iraq, and Trans-Caucasia. The seeds are known
in India, where supplies come from Iran. They are dark brown,
oblong in shape, 2 by 1 mm., three-angled, tapering toward the
umbilicus, where there is a white, V-shaped mark; they are feebly
pungent and become coated with transparent mucilage when soaked
in water. The seeds are stimulating and aphrodisiac.
Calendula officinalis L. (Compositae)
Hamishah bahar (Teh., Iraq); Gole himmicheh behar (Schl.);
Qarah Koz (Turk.); marigold flowers.
The pot marigold, a plant of the Mediterranean coast, is a weed
of cultivation in northern India, and is much grown in gardens for
its ornamental flowers. The yellow flower heads are bitter and
have long been used among domestic remedies. "A tincture made
from the dried florets was formerly used in medicine for application
to wounds" (Guest).
94 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. IX
Capparis spinosa L. (Capparidaceae)
j\S <i_ j
Rishah-i-kabar (Teh.); Kabar (Pers., Iraq); the bark.
Ph. Ind. l:131;Boiss. 1:420.
Field 200; W.H.M.M. 150803; K.B. 307.
The thorny caper is found in western Asia, Europe, North Africa,
and Australia. It is a common shrub in the open country, forming
great bushes fully 5 feet high.
Throughout Iran the flower buds are collected to be made into
pickles. The light-colored root and the thick root bark are used in
medicine, the bark being the Capparis Cortex Radicis of the old
"Persian Pharmacopoeia." They are both pungent and bitter and are
given for intermittent fever and rheumatism.
Capsicum frutescens L. (Solanaceae)
Filfil muyeh, Filfil-i-surkh (Teh.); Filfil ahmer (Ar.); Lai mirch
(Hind.); red pepper, bird pepper, chilies.
Field 96A, 111A; W.H.M.M. 150914.
This species of peppers or chilies, Capsicum and C. annuum, are
cultivated throughout India and Iran for their pungent fruits, and
are used throughout the East for culinary purposes. Capsicums and
their preparations act as a powerful local irritant. In medicinal doses
chilies stimulate the alimentary canal, promoting the flow of gastric
juice "to increase appetite and aid digestion."
Cart humus tinctorius L. (Compositae)
Kafshah, Tukhm-i-kafshah (Teh., Ham.) ; the seed.
Gul-i-rang (Teh.); Gul-i-kajira, Qurtum (Ar.); Kusam (Hind.);
Atractus (Gr.) ; safflower, the flowers.
Ait.; Post; Schl.; Laufer 324; Ph. Ind. 2: 308.
Field 33, 39A, 195; W.H.M.M. 150866; K.B. 307.
The safflower plant is cultivated in Syria, Iran, and Afghanistan
as a field crop for its red florets, which are used as a dyestuff and
cosmetic. The red flowers are often supplied as a cheap substitute
for saffron, the stigmas of Crocus sativus L.
The fruits or achenes, called parrot seed, the size of barley
grains, yield by expression an oil which is used as a salve for sprains
PLANTS AND DRUGS OF IRAN AND IRAQ 95
Carum Bulbocastanum Koch (Umbelliferae)
Tukhm zireh (Teh.); Zireh-siyah, Kirmani (Isf.); Kala-zirah
(Afg.); Jira-shak (N.E. Pers.); black caraway.
Field 35, 441; W.H.M.M. 150909.
These fruits constitute the spice called black caraway of Iran
and northern India. Royle described the plant yielding these fruits
as Carum nigrum, but Aitchison was the first to observe that they
were collected from a plant with tuberous roots. They are a sub-
stitute for the ordinary caraway of Europe (C. Carui L.), and are
used in medicine as a carminative.
Carum copticum Benth. & Hook. (Sison Ammi L.; Trachyspermum
Ammi Sprague ex Turrill; Ptychotis Ajowan DC.', Ammi copticum
Ziniyan (Teh., Ham.); Ajowan, Ajwain (Hind.); Omum (Tarn.);
Ammeos (Ph. Pers.); Basilikon Kuminon (Gr.); bishop's weed, the
Boiss. 2: 898; Fl. Br. Ind. 2: 682; Ph. Ind. 2: 116.
Field 17; W.H.M.M. 150750; K.B. 308.
This is an African plant, cultivated in Europe, Iran, Afghanistan,
and throughout India. The aromatic fruits were a well-known
medicine among the ancient Greeks and Arabs. The Irani drug is
produced largely in the province of Shiraz. The fruits are brownish
gray, smaller and more curved than caraway seeds. The fragrance and
active principle reside in an essential oil holding a stearoptene, called
thymol, which crystallizes out at ordinary temperatures. Thymol
is known in India as Ajwain-ka-phul or "Flowers of Ajwain." The
distillate obtained from the fruits when boiled with water is called
"Omum water," and is used as a carminative for children and as a
Carum Petroselinum Benth. & Hook. (Umbelliferae)
Tukhm-i-kalam (Teh.); Maghdunes (Iraq); Pitar saleri (Hind.);
Parsley is a plant of southern Europe, cultivated in kitchen
gardens for its leaves, which are used as a condiment. The fruits
96 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. IX
are a grayish green or greenish brown, 2 mm. long and 1 to 2 mm.
thick, laterally compressed; the odor and taste are aromatic. The
chief constituent is a volatile oil containing apiol which, on standing,
separates in crystals (parsley camphor). Commercial apiol is a
viscous, oily liquid prepared by extracting the seeds with ether.
The fruits are aperient and febrifuge, and apiol is given for dysmenor-
rhea and amenorrhea.
Cassia Absus L. (Leguminosae)
Chasm (Ham., Teh.); Hab-us-sudan (Ar.); Chaksu seed of India;
Egyptian cassia seed.
Ph. Ind. 1: 524; Fl. Br. Ind. 2: 265.
Field 155; W.H.M.M. 150817; K.B. 308.
This plant is widely distributed in the tropics of the Old World.
The small, black, lens-shaped seeds have long been known in the
East in the treatment of eye diseases; Chaksu in Sanskrit means
"an eye." In some districts a plaster made from the seeds is recom-
mended as an application for wounds and sores. In Hamadan the
seeds are classed among the poisons.
Cassia acutifolia Delile (Leguminosae)
Sana' (Teh.); Sana mukhi (Iraq); Sana-hindi (Ar.); senna.
Field 143, 44A; W.H.M.M. 150844.
Senna leaves are imported into Iran from India. In Tehran they
are used as a purgative, mixed with a confection of rose leaves and
Cassia Fistula L. (Leguminosae)
Fulus (Isf .) ; pods.
Field 15 (Isf.), 415.
The purging cassia is a tree indigenous to India, where the
long, cylindrical pods are collected and the sweet pulp is used largely
in medicine and exported. According to Aitchison, Folusi is the
Turki name for the tree in Yarkand, western Sinkiang, China.
As a remedy for pyrosis, the central portion of the stem is boil-
ed, the liquid filtered and sugar and almond oil added. Directions are
given to drink it early in the morning on an empty stomach and at
PLANTS AND DRUGS OF IRAN AND IRAQ 97
intervals during the day. Bread must be omitted from the diet
during the time of medication (H.F.).
Celosia argentea L. (Amarantaceae)
Gul-i-halva (Isf.); Sarwali (Hind.); cockscomb seeds.
The plant grows throughout India and tropical Asia. The
pinkish and yellow flower heads, seeds, and roots are used in medicine.
The seeds are lenticular, brown or black, smooth, shining, convex on
both surfaces. The leaves are used for poultices; the flowering tops
with seeds are given as a nervine tonic and in diarrhea. The author
of the "Muffaridat-i-Nasiri" states that 180 grains of the seeds, with
an equal quantity of sugar candy, taken daily in a cup of milk, is a
Mixed with Chrozophora verbascifolia Juss., the seeds are given as
an infusion for chest pains, especially during whooping cough (H.F.).
Geltis australis L. (Ulmaceae)
Digh-dighane (Isf.) ; nettle tree.
This ornamental tree is cultivated in Khorasan and near Bagh-
dad, frequently near shrines and holy places. The small, green,
wrinkled fruits of C. caucasica Willd. are mixed with ordinary flour to
be made into bread.
C. Tournefortii Lam., Tawak in Kurdistan, bears small edible
fruits like cherries.
Chaerophyllum sp. (Umbelliferae)
Qurdumana (Teh.) ; Keruwiah (Isf.) ; the fruits.
These fruits are gray-green, elongated, 10 by 1 mm., with a
faint caraway odor. Honigberger refers the Arabic Kurdamana
to Lagaecia cuminoides having similar properties. Stapf informs us
that Keruwiah brought from Chahar Mahal and sold for medicine
in Isfahan is an allied umbelliferous plant, Grammosciadium macrodon
Boiss. They are both carminative medicines.
98 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. IX
Chahar-tukhmah. The four seeds.
In the Field collection there are two samples (183 Tehran and 16
Iraq) labeled "Chahar-tukhmah" and "Mixed seeds." They are
sold as a tonic medicine and remedy for diarrhea. The four seeds
are Barhang (Plantago major L.), Gudamah (Alyssum campestre L.),
Sepistan (Cordia Myxa L.), and Bihidana (Pyrus Cydonia L.). It will
be noticed that all these seeds are very mucilaginous. Aitchison also
refers to a mixture of four seeds sold in the Punjab and Yarkand
called "Kam-parah." Kam means "little or deficient," and parah
"a portion or piece," suggesting that the four seeds combined make
up the whole or perfect remedy. This theory resembles the blending
of the five cucurbitaceous seeds in India (see Cucumis), where the
mixture represents the quintessence of a tonic prescription. The
four seeds in the Yarkand collection are Barhang (Plantago major L.),
Isparza (P. ovata Forsk.), Raihan (Ocimum Basilicum L.), and Marva
Chrozophora verbascifolia Juss. (Euphorbiaceae)
Barg-i-quitaran (Teh.); Zurraij (Iraq); Nil-kanthe (Punj.);
Shahdeve (Hind.) ; the herb.
Field 404, 405; W.H.M.M. 150719.
This is a common weed in cultivated ground, found in tropical
India in the dry season. The drug consists of the leaves, stalks, and
fruits of the herb, which are used locally for whooping cough. The
plant is known for its alterative properties, and at one time was
recommended for leprosy. The seeds, called "Tannum" in Kuwait,
contain 35 per cent of a fatty oil, which is used by the Beduins of
Arabia as a substitute for clarified butter. The plant is related to
the turnsole (C. tinctoria Juss.) which, in addition to its yielding a
purplish blue dye, has emetic and poisonous properties.
Cicer arietinum L. (Leguminosae)
Nakhud (Teh., also Punj. and Turk, names); Ghana (Hind.);
Nok (Kurd.); Bengal gram, chick pea.
Field 66A, 68A.
The chick pea is a small, annual plant with pinnate leaves. The
stems are covered with glandular hairs containing oxalic acid, which,
PLANTS AND DRUGS OF IRAN AND IRAQ 99
under the influence of dew, exudes and hangs in drops. This acid
liquor is called Chana-no-kheto, and is valued medicinally. The
seeds or pulse are gibbous, mucronate, and greenish gray in color.
Ghana is the favorite pulse of the natives of India, and is taken
raw or parched or soaked in syrup as a confection. The seed is
named "Nakhud," the name for an Irani weight equal to 1/144 ounce
avoirdupois. The seeds weigh, on an average, 5 grains each.
Cichorium Intybus L. (Compositae)
Tukhm-i-kasm (Ham., Teh.) ; Kashi (Hind., Bom., Beng.) ; Intubus
(Lat.); Sem. Cichorii (Ph. Pers.); the achenes (seeds) of chicory.
Klshah-i-kasni (Ham., Teh.) ; chicory root.
Ph. Ind. 2: 311; Boiss. 2: 716; I.H.B.
Field 28, 254; W.H.M.M. 150812; K.B. 309.
The chicory plant is indigenous to Iran and is cultivated in India
and Europe. It goes under the same name as endive, and the natives
of eastern Iran do not distinguish between them (Aitchison).
The root is fleshy and tapering, wrinkled longitudinally, and brown
on the outside. The dried and torrefied root is known as an ingredient
often mixed with commercial brands of coffee. In Iran, Baluchistan,
and India it is a resolvent and cooling medicine for bilious attacks.
For this purpose it is sometimes mixed with Viola sp., Nymphaea
alba L., and Cordia Myxa L. (H.F.). The achenes are angled, of
pale, mottled gray and have a bitter, mucilaginous taste.
Cinchona Calisaya Wedd. (Rubiaceae)
A< A< -
4.J A.J i^^uf aj
Pust-i-kinah-kmah (Teh.) ; Qanaqinah (Iraq) ; cinchona or quinine
Field 125A; W.H.M.M. 150905.
Cinchona bark is sold in small quantities in the Eastern bazaars
from Iran to China. It was introduced into Europe in the 17th
century when brought over as Kina Kina, or Peruvian bark, by the
Jesuit missionaries from South America. After its admission in 1677
to the "London Pharmacopoeia" it was sent out to the physicians of
the East India Company. In 1760 the bark powder was being sold
in the apothecary shops in Calcutta at Rs.3 per ounce. In 1860
the cultivation of the cinchona tree was established in India, and
quinine is now being manufactured in that country in addition to
the supplies coming from Java.
100 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. IX
Cinnamomum Cassia Blume (Lauraceae)
Dar-chini (Isf., the Hindi name); Darasini (Ar.); Chinese cin-
Field 14 (Isf.), 108.
The cinnamon bark from China is kept by druggists, and is a
favorite spice. It is used in curry and as an ingredient in medicines.
The bark is prepared as a tea for excessive salivation, frequent in Iran.
Gurfah (Teh.); Kalphah (Bom.); the fruits.
The small, black fruits of the cinnamon tree from China are sold
in the bazaars. In South India the fruits of C. iners Reinw. are used
in medicine, but are inferior to the above.
Barg-i-sadhaj (Teh.); Sadhaj-i-hindi (Isf.); the leaves.
Field 17 (Isf.); W.H.M.M. 150884.
The leaves of the cinnamon are taken internally for rheumatism.
The vernacular name is applied by the Indian Mohammedans to
the leaves of a wild cinnamon tree in Sylhet used as a carminative
and stimulant (Ph. Ind. 3: 209). The leaves constitute the ancient
Hindu drug known as Malabathrum, Talispatra, and Folia indica.
Cirsium lanceolatum L. (Compositae)
Foveh (?) (Ham.); thistledown.
Achundow; Boiss. 2: 538; Post.
Under this name the white, feathery pappus or thistledown
from the above plant is sold in the bazaars. A medicine called
"Badawerde" (carried by the wind) consists of the pappus of the holy
thistle (Cnicus benedictus L.). The downy heads of species of Volu-
tarella and Echinops are also used as a drug, probably as an absorbent
material for external application.
Citrullus Colocynthis Schrad. (Cucurbitaceae)
Kharbuzah-rubah, Kabiste talkh (Pers.); Hanzal (Ar.); Handhal,
Gozharik (Kurd.); Indrazana (Hind.); colocynth, bitter apple,
PLANTS AND DRUGS OF IRAN AND IRAQ 101
Field 106 (Iraq); 77A (Iran and Iraq).
The colocynth is a trailing, perennial herb with mottled, green
or yellow fruit about the size of a large orange, and is common in
sandy desert regions in northern India, Iran, and Syria. The rind
is brittle and the inner surface is covered with a soft, spongy, white
substance with an intensely bitter taste. This pulp, made into an
extract, is official in all the pharmacopoeias.
This is a drastic hydragogue cathartic, due to the presence of
colocynthin, a crystallizable glucoside. The small, oval, brown
seeds contain about 17 per cent of a fixed oil, and, with albuminous
matter and salts, are edible and nutritious.
Citrullus vulgaris Schrad. (Cucurbitaceae)
Tukhm-i-garmak, Tarbuz (Teh.); Qarpuz (Turk.); Shami (Iraq);
Field 73A, 94A; W.H.M.M. 150728.
This melon is cultivated throughout the country in the summer.
The fruit is well known for its refreshing pulp, and is sometimes
used as a source of water. For two months in the year the water-
melon, with a little bread, may be looked upon as the food and
drink of the people (Aitchison). The seeds are collected, sold, and
eaten, with or without salt; they are chewed as a pastime and con-
sidered to have medicinal properties. The seeds also comprise one
of the five cucurbitaceous seeds of Hindu medicine, the other four
being: Cucumis sativus L. (cucumber) ; C. Melo L. (muskmelon, Khar-
buz) ; Lagenaria vulgaris Ser. (bottle gourd or Dudhi) ; and Benincasa
cerifera Savi (white tallow gourd, Kodu). They are cooling, diuretic,
Citrus aurantifolia (Christm.) Swingle (Rutaceae)
Limon, Limon-amman or Limmon Basra (Iraq); Post-i-limon
(Afg.); Basra lime.
Hard, dry lemons or limes the size of a nutmeg, these fruits
(Numi Basra) are imported into Iraq from India, and used with sugar
for making a beverage called Shai Hamidh (G.).
Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck (Rutaceae)
Four products of the orange tree are used in medicine in Iran:
102 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. IX
Flowers: Bahar-i-naranj, "spice of orange" (Teh.); Naphae flores
Ph. Ind. 1:270.
Field 219; W.H.M.M. 150778; K.B. 309.
The dried flowers of the cultivated orange are sold in bazaars
and recommended as a stimulant and to prevent dysentery. Schlim-
mer refers to Aqua florum aurantii or Aqua naphae as a favorite
flavoring agent. The oil contains a nitrogenous substance of exceed-
ing fragrance, anthanilic acid methyl-ester.
pyO" *-^ _y.
Leaves: Barg-i-naranj (Isf.).
Among other uses, the leaves of the orange tree are applied to
reduce swollen legs. For this purpose they are sometimes mixed
with Taxus baccata L., orange seeds, bitter cane, and hemlock fruits
Orange peel: Khalal-i-naranj, Pust-i-utruj (Teh.); the peel or
pericarp in thin shreds.
Field 153; W.H.M.M. 150804, 150896.
Orange peel is an ingredient in the preparation of tincture of
cinchona and tincture of gentian. In domestic cookery in Iran
it gives a flavor to boiled rice and other vegetables.
Post-i-naranj is the fruit which, cut in two and dried in the sun,
is sold in the bazaars.
TO J \j <L~
Seeds: Hastah-i-naranj (Teh.).
Orange seeds or pips are bitter. They are first torrefied to remove
the husks, and are taken as a stimulating remedy.
Colchicum luteum Baker and C. speciosum Stev. (Liliaceae)
Surinjan-i-kirmam (Teh.) ; Surinjan-i-talkh (Pers.) ; Hermodactyl,
"the finger of Hermes" (Gr.) ; the corms.
Achundow; Ph. Pers.; Boiss. 5: 155; Schl.; Ait.; Ph. Ind. 3: 496.
PLANTS AND DRUGS OF IRAN AND IRAQ 103
Field 14; W.H.M.M. 150857; K.B. 310.
The yellow-flowered Colchicum is found on grassy slopes in
the temperate Himalayas, and in Afghanistan and Turkestan. C. spe-
ciosum Stev. is met with throughout the Badghis, Harirud, and
Khorasan. The corms or bulbous roots are mixed with those of
Merendera persica Boiss., which constitute the Hermodactyls of the
later Greeks (Aitchison). The corms are ovate, 3.5 to 5 cm. long,
white, hard, and horny. The starch is muller-shaped with a hilum.
Both species afford the alkaloid, colchicine, and are used, as is C.
autumnale in Europe, for rheumatism. Powdered, they are given as
an infusion for phthisis (H.F.).
Commiphora Molmol Engl. (Burseraceae)
Khak-i-mugl, Mun-e-makki (Teh.); Mur, Bol (Hind., Bom.);
Myrrha mechensis (Ph. Pers.); oleo-gum-resin.
Abu Mansur; Schl.; Pharmacog. 125; Ait.; Ph. Ind. 1: 304.
Field 204; K.B. 310.
The fragrant oleo-gum-resin known as myrrh is one of the most
ancient drugs in the Orient. It is obtained from plants growing in
northeast Africa and South Arabia, and is brought to India, where
Bombay is the center of the trade. Aitchison says it is imported into
Meshed through Iran for further transport to Afghanistan and
Turkestan. Myrrh is an important drug among Mohammedans,
who suppose that it originally came from Mecca. The sample from
Tehran is in the form of grains; made into pills it is used as a stomachic
and for lumbago. The dose is five pills (H.F.).
Commiphora Mukul Engl. (Burseraceae)
Muql-i-azraq (Teh.); Moghl-ezregh (Schl.); Gugal, Bdellium
(Hind.); Indian bdellium.
Ph. Pers.; Tschirch; Pharmacog.; Ph. Ind. 1: 311.
Field 245; W.H.M.M. 150703; K.B. 310.
The Mohammedans describe the different kinds of bdellium under
the name of Muql (Mukul), and say that it is the product of a tree
common in Arabia and India. Several kinds are distinguished,
all of them bitter gum-resins. That with a bluish tinge is termed
Muql-i-azraq; with a yellowish tinge, Muql-i-yahud ; brown, Sakulali;
104 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. IX
and with a rich, red-brown color, Muql-i-abair. Sticky and bitter,
the Irani samples form milky emulsions with water. The drug is
given in muscular rheumatism and is applied to painful parts in the
form of a "lep" or native plaster. One misqal of the drug is given
for insomnia (H.F.).
Commiphora opobalsamum Kunth (Burseraceae)
Habb-i-balsan (Isf.); Hab-el-balasana, Akulla, Balasan (Ar.);
balm of Gilead, balm of Mecca.
The fruits of this tree of Arabia are oval, pointed, wrinkled, red-
dish brown; the taste is balsamic, with an odor resembling that of
turpentine. The fruits are carminative, stomachic, expectorant,
and stimulant; in Isfahan, for shivering and colds, a few of the
fruits are swallowed whole.
'Ud-i-balsan (Isf.) ; wood.
The wood of the balsam tree, Xylobalsamum of Dioscorides,
is pinkish and heavy in texture. It is found in pieces covered with
layers of papery bark. The wood has properties similar to those of
Coniurn maculatum L. (Umbelliferae)
Bikh-i-shankaran (Isf.); Karedemonah (Ham.); Kurdumana
(Hind.); Karvaya-i-dashti (Pers.); Khorasain-ajwan (Ind. bazaars);
conium or hemlock fruits.
Boiss. 2: 922; Ph. Ind. 2: 110.
Field 433; K.B. 311.
The hemlock is a poisonous plant distributed through Europe
and northern Asia. Aitchison found the plant, fully 7 feet in height,
in Karabakh. Arabian and Persian physicians repeat in their writ-
ings the opinion of the Greeks in regard to hemlock. The fruits and
leaves contain a poisonous alkaloid, conine, which paralyzes the
motor nerves. The fruits are used locally, in the form of a lotion, to
PLANTS AND DRUGS OF IRAN AND IRAQ 105
Goptis Teeta Wall. (Ranunculaceae)
Mamiran (Teh.); the rhizome.
Mamiran is a drug known to the early Indian traders. Bernier,
who visited Kashmir in the train of the Emperor Aurangzebe, men-
tions it as a medicine good for the eyes, which was brought into that
country from Tibet. The plant is cultivated on the outskirts of
virgin forests in the mountains of western China, and is sent to
India by way of Singapore. The roots are thin, knotted rhizomes
with a yellow interior. They contain the alkaloid, berberine, and
are used as a collyrium, and as a general tonic.
Corchorus olitorius L. (Tiliaceae)
Mulukhiyah (Iraq); Baphalli (Hind.); Rajajira, Isband (Bom.);
Jew's mallow, jute, the seeds.
Field 55, 69, 71 (Iraq).
This species of jute was introduced from Egypt and is cultivated
as a vegetable. The fiber, not being suitable for cordage, is extensively
used in surgery as a cheap drainage material (Post). The seeds of
the bitter Corchorus (C. trilocularis) were known to the Greeks.
The seeds are dark bluish green, angular, 2 mm. long, and very
bitter. An infusion is given in fevers and in cases of congested liver.
Cordia Myxa L. (Boraginaceae)
Sepistan (Teh.); Sebestan or Sapistan, from Sagpistan, "dog's
dugs" (Pers.) ; sebestan plums.
Achundow; Ph. Pers.; Schl.; Post 532; Boiss. 4: 124; Ait; I.H.B.;
Ph. Ind. 2: 518; Cordia Myxa and Allied Species, J. Hutchinson,
Kew Bull., 1918, 217.
Field 11; W.H.M.M. 150724; K.B. 311.
Cordia Myxa L., the Arbor glutinosa of Rumphius, is a common
shrub or small tree frequently cultivated and found in regions
extending from Egypt to Indo-China and tropical Africa. Sebestan
is a well-known drug in the Orient, introduced by the Arabs. It is a
drupe the size of a cherry with mucilaginous properties. Aitchison
says the fruits are imported chiefly from southern Iran to be employed
106 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. IX
in medicine, and are forwarded in great quantities to Turkestan. On
account of their demulcent properties, they are useful for coughs and
chest complaints; the dose in Tehran is said to be ten fruits (H.F.).
Coriandrum sativum L. (Umbelliferae)
Tukhm-i-gishniz (Teh.); Kuzbara (Ar., Iraq); Gashnish (Turk.);
Dhanya (Hind.); Koriyan (Gr.); coriander fruits.
Achundow; Schl.; Laufer; Fl. Br. Ind. 2: 177; Ph. Ind. 2: 129.
Field 30, 33A; W.H.M.M. 150918; K.B. 311.
The coriander plant is cultivated in gardens throughout Iran,
Afghanistan, and India. The globular fruits are a well-known spice
and flavoring agent. The plant is used in salads and curries, and an
infusion of the leaves is said to relieve headache. The fruits are
smoked to relieve toothache (H.F.).
Corylus Colurna L. (Cupuliferae)
Funduk (Teh.); Findaq, Bundaq (Iraq); Findak (Hind.); Indian
or Constantinople hazel.
Field 66 (Iraq), 48A.
A tree of the northwestern Himalayas, Kashmir, and Afghanistan,
this is a relative of the European hazel (C. Avellana). Its nuts are
generally plentiful in the larger markets of Iran and are said to come
from the north. Filberts or cobnuts contain a large quantity of
sweet oil and are eaten either raw or roasted.
Cotoneaster nummularia Fisch. & Mey. (Rosaceae)
Shir Khisht, Khushk= dried (Teh.); Shir-milk, (Pers.); a sac-
This is a common shrub on the Sia-Koh and Safed-Koh ranges,
at an elevation of 3,000 feet and upward. It yields in certain seasons,
from its smaller branches, white, sugary lumps of manna which are
considered aperient and stomachic. Mixed with water, it is con-
sidered a remedy for typhoid (H.F.). This is one of the four varieties
of manna met with in Iran; the others are Tar-anjubin (Alhagi
camelorum Fisch.), Gaz-anjabin (Tamarix gallica L.), and Shakr-ul-
PLANTS AND DRUGS OF IRAN AND IRAQ 107
ashar or Shakar tiqal, the product of a beetle on Echinops persicus
Shir Khisht is eaten as it comes from the shrub, with food, or
converted into a sweetmeat; sometimes it is exported to India.
Crataegus orientalis Bieb. (Rosaceae)
Kaik-vash, Kawich (Isf.); Ghich (Ham.); Gaiwuzh (Turk.);
Alafkhareg (Afg.); the fruits.
Schl.; Boiss. 2: 660; Post; Ait.; I.H.B.
The Oriental hawthorn is a shrub or small tree of Asia Minor or
the Caucasus. The fruits of most species are used in medicine, and
those grown in the gardens at Ba'quba, Iraq, fetch a good price in
the local market. The berries from Hamadan are pome-like, rounded,
12 mm. across, with a reddish brown, wrinkled pericarp, surmounted
by an umbilicate disk of the minute lobes of the calyx; within are
three oval, light brown, hard pyrenes. The fruits contain sugar, and
are supposed to act as an opiate, while the seeds are used as a
medicine for spermatorrhea.
Crocus sativus L. (Iridaceae)
Za'faran (Teh.); Zafran (Ar.); Karkum, Abir (Pers.); Kesar
(Kash.); Kesara (Hind.); saffron, hay saffron.
Field 2; W.H.M.M. 150720.
The saffron plant is cultivated in the neighborhood of Pampur in
Kashmir and was formerly cultivated in Isfahan. It was grown in
the 10th century in Spain, where the bulk of the European saffron
is now produced. The dried, red stigmas of the crocus are a favorite
coloring matter in medicine and food. The drug has a stimulant and
Croton Tiglium L. (Euphorbiaceae)
Habb-el-salatin, "Sultan's seeds" (Ham.); Habb-el-khatai,
"Cathay (China) seeds"; Bidend jireh khatai, "castor oil seeds from
China"; Habb-dilmaluk (Ait.); Jamalgota (Punj.); croton seeds.
Ait.; Schl.; Ph. Ind. 3: 281.
108 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. IX
This small tree, indigenous to China and northeastern India,
is now under cultivation throughout the greater part of India and
the East. Croton seeds were known to the Persians at an early date,
and were doubtless introduced from China by the caravan route
through Central Asia. Described by Acosta in 1578, they were
called Pinones de Malaca. The seeds contain a violently purgative
oil, and are classified by the Iranis among the poisons.
Cucumis sativus L. (Cucurbitaceae)
Tukhm-i-khiyar (Teh.); Khira (Punj.); Lar (Kash.); Kira
(Hind.); cucumber seeds.
Field 34; W.H.M.M. 150754.
Cucumber seeds are ovate, pointed at both ends, 12 by 5 mm.,
notched at the apex; the cotyledons are oily and sweet.
The seeds are a favorite nutritive and demulcent, resembling
in action and uses the five cucurbitaceous seeds (see Citrullus
vulgaris Schrad.). The therapeutic action of cucumber seeds, from a
local point of view, must be considered as somewhat negative, since
they may be "mixed with any medicine the doctor prescribes."
They are given as an infusion for typhoid (H.F.).
Cucurbita Pepo DC. (Cucurbitaceae)
Gul-i-kadu (Teh., Ham.); Shijar (Iraq); Kadu (Hind.); flowers
of the pumpkin.
Ait.; Schl.; Fl. Br. Ind. 2: 622.
Field 214, 92A; W.H.M.M. 150891; K.B. 312.
The pumpkin is largely cultivated as a vegetable in Iran and
Afghanistan. The flowers, chiefly yellow or orange corollas, are sold
in the bazaars. Made into a decoction, they may be applied to the
face "to improve the complexion"; they are also administered
internally for chest complaints.
Tukhm-i-kadu (Teh.) ; the seeds of the pumpkin.
Field 65; W.H.M.M. 150766.
The seeds are light colored, oval, 2 by 1 cm., smooth, with a
marginal rim. Like the seeds of other members of the gourd family,
they form a nutritive and palatable addition to ordinary diet.
PLANTS AND DRUGS OF IRAN AND IRAQ 109
Cuminum Cyminum L. (Umbelliferae)
Zirah-i-sabz (Isf., Iraq); Zira (Hind.); Jira (Beng., Bom.);
Goi-zira, "green weed" (Turk, in Tabriz); Cummun (Syr.); the fruits.
Post 373; Gilliat-Smith & Turrill, Kew Bull. 1930, 390; Ph. Ind.
Field 438, 34A; W.H.M.M. 150792; K.B. 313.
The fruits of cumin are called green or white caraway to distinguish
them from darker or black caraway (Carum Bulbocastanum Koch).
The cumin plant is grown in gardens as a potherb, and the seeds, or
properly fruits, are sold in the bazaars as a condiment and carmina-
tive medicine. They are also prescribed to relieve pains after child-
birth (H.F.). From the dawn of civilization in Egypt, its use spread
into Arabia, Iran, India, and China.
Cupressus sempervirens L. (Coniferae)
Gul-i-sarv (Teh.) ; cypress fruits.
The fruits of the cypress tree are reddish brown, opening by a
five-parted covering, fragrant, and bitter. They contain an essential
oil which has been recommended for whooping cough and as an
Curcuma aromatica Salisb. (Zingiberaceae)
Qurunbad this name is a corruption of Zurunbad (Curcuma
Zedoaria Roxb. (Teh.); Jangali-haladi (Hind.); wild turmeric,
round or yellow zedoary tubers.
This is a contorted, yellow root, dressed with yellow powder,
hard and orange brown within, having a delicate camphoraceous
odor. The powdered root is used for flatulence (H.F.).
Curcuma domestica Val. and C. longa Trim. (Zingiberaceae)
Karkum, the Persian name for saffron (Teh.); Haldi (Hind.);
Zard chobah, yellow root (Pers.); turmeric.
Field 73, 94; 73A, 74A.
110 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. IX
These samples represent the rhizome and powdered root of
turmeric. The root, called Indian saffron, is imported from India as
a dye stuff, but is sometimes employed in Iran as a condiment. In
medicine turmeric is a stimulant, tonic, and aromatic. Like other
yellow roots, it is used in a decoction as a cooling lotion for con-
junctivitis. Turmeric contains a yellow coloring matter, curcumin,
and a thick, viscid oil.
Curcuma Zedoaria Roxb. and C. Zerumbet Roxb. (Zingiberaceae)
Zurunbad (Teh.) ; Kachura (Hind.) ; Uruk-el-kafur (Ar.) ; zedoary,
Field 148; W.H.M.M. 150910.
Zedoary is imported in quantity from India, most of it to be
passed on to Turkestan. The root occurs in thin, transverse slices,
2 to 5 cm. in diameter, pale brown and wrinkled without, smooth
and mealy within, odor camphoraceous, taste pungent and bitter.
The drug, which is also employed as a condiment, is carminative and
stimulant, and an ingredient in various alterative medicines. It is
recommended for relief of flatulence (H.F.).
Cuscuta planifolia Ten. and C. hyalina Roth (Convolvulaceae)
Tukhm-i-kushuth, Tukhm-i-kishvar, Resha-i-kishvar (Ham.,
Isf., Teh.); Gul-i-geshuz (Ham.); Kukil-i-pol, "moist silk" (Kash.);
Aftimun, the herb; Kashuth is the Arabic name for dodder; Kassutha
(Gr.); Cuscuta (Lat.), hence Keshus (Pers.); kill weed; seeds and
Boiss. 4: 117; Ph. Ind. 1: 548; Sci. Pa. 240.
Field 187, 226, 436, 437; W.H.M.M. 150734, 150782; K.B. 313.
Gul-i-keshus (the flowers) and Tukhm-i-keshus (the seeds) are
exported from Iran to India mixed with the leaves and spines of the
plants on which they grow. The seeds are light brown and have a
bitter taste. The flowers are given for asthma as an infusion, one
cup, for catarrh (H.F.) and for obesity the (thin, filamentous
stems). The drug Aftimun, Epitymon (Gr.), is probably derived from
C. europaea, a native of Europe and western Asia. It is given as a
digestive and purifier of the blood, just as in Europe dodder is an
ancient remedy for intestinal disorders such as constipation and
PLANTS AND DRUGS OF IRAN AND IRAQ 111
Dodder herb is given for rheumatism. Mixed with Heracleum
persicum Desf. and gentian root, it is taken to stop excessive
Cymbopogon Schoenanthus Spreng. (Gramineae)
Asfar-i-makki, Azkar (Teh.); Iskhir (Ar.); Khavi (Hind.);
Juncus odoratus; Herba Schoenanthi; camel grass.
Ph. Pers.; SchL; Ph. Ind. 3: 557; Oil-grasses of India and Ceylon,
by 0. Stapf, Kew Bull., 1906, 297.
W.H.M.M. 150785; K.B. 313.
The drug sent under these names is intended to represent the
Irani and Indian drug Ishkar or Izkhir-i-jami, the stem and root of
fragrant grass introduced originally from Arabia. The drug consists
of the lower parts of the leafy stem with a few wiry roots and has a
lemon-like odor. Kampfer in his travels in Persia in 1683-1688
speaks of the distillation of the oil from the grass Izkhir ("Amoen.
Exot." 1712). Preparations of the grass are used locally for debility.
Cynara Scolymus L. (Compositae)
Kangar, Kangar-i-dahri (Isf., Teh.); Kinguere (SchL); Ardi-
shauki (Ar.); Anghinar (Turk.); artichoke seeds.
Achundow; Boiss. 3: 557.
Field 446; K.B. 314.
The artichoke is a cultivated plant in Iran. Its hard, white,
polished fruits are used in medicine, and are said to be an antidote
for opium poisoning. Kangar is a name applied in Iran to almost any
thistle. Aitchison believes that it originated from the Persian name
of an allied plant, prickly artichoke (Gundulea Tournefortii L.); this
plant exudes an emetic resin (Kangar-zad) which is used medicinally.
Cyperus rotundus L. (Cyperaceae)
Tapalaq (Teh.) ; So-ad (Ham.) ; Sa'ad (Iraq) ; Seid (Sud.) ; Motha
(Hind.); Muschk-i-zemin, "earth musk"; Rad. Junci odorati (Ph.
Pers.) ; Hsiang fu (Chin.) ; scented rush.
Achundow; Ph. Pers.; Ph. Ind. 3: 552.
Field 89A; W.H.M.M. 150755; K.B. 314.
112 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. IX
The sedge grows plentifully in moist or boggy ground. The
small, dark, hairy tubers are ovate-oblong, pointed at both ends,
about 2.5 cm. or less in length, brown, hard, and horny. They have a
fragrance resembling lemon and cardamom. These tubers are known
in Asia for their perfume and medicinal properties; they are used for
cleaning the teeth and are placed among clothes to keep away insects.
Datura Stramonium L. (Solanaceae)
Tukhm-tatura (Pers.); Datura (Hind.); Jouj macel (Ar.); Shinah
Azqhi (Bal.) ; stramonium thorn apple.
Ait.; Ph. Ind. 2: 586; Y.B. Pharm. 1927, 49; Synopsis of Genus
Datura, W. E. Safford, Journ. Wash. Acad. Sci., 19 Apr. 1921.
The thorn apple grows in North, Central, and South America,
and was introduced at a very early date into the warm regions of
Europe, Asia, and Africa. This species is a weed in Iran, and the
name has been borrowed from other countries. Specimens of the
seeds came from Tehran and Hamadan and the leaves from Ham-
adan. Both seeds and leaves are used as poultices to allay pain.
The natives recognize the poisonous properties of the seeds and some-
times call them Kachola, the name for the seeds of nux vomica, as
both are used for killing dogs.
Daucus Garota L. (Umbelliferae)
Tukhm-i-havij, Tukhm zardak (Teh.); Jazr-ul-bostani (Ar.);
Jazar, Gaizar (Iraq); Gajur (Hind.); Hawuch (Turk.); carrot fruits.
Field 120A, 203; W.H.M.M. 150887.
The carrot is greatly valued as a vegetable and much cultivated.
The fruits are dull brown, oval, and compressed, the surface is
rugose, marked with ridges which are distinctly winged, and the
wings fringed with white teeth or bristles. The taste is balsamic,
bitter, and oily. The fruit is stimulant, laxative, emollient, diuretic,
Delphinium Zalil Ait. & Hemsl. (Ranunculaceae)
Isparak (Teh.); Asbarg, Aswarg, Zalil (other parts of Iran);
Hishwarg (Bal.); flowers of yellow larkspur.
PLANTS AND DRUGS OF IRAN AND IRAQ 113
The yellow larkspur is a perennial herb in desert regions of Iran
and Iraq, with shoots 2 feet high, each bearing a terminal spike
of yellow flowers. The dried petals are of commercial importance,
yielding a valuable yellow dye for silk, and are exported for this
purpose in large quantities to Turkestan, Afghanistan, and even to
India, where the flowers, to a small extent, are employed in
Dolichos Lablab L. (Leguminosae)
Lubiya-gul (Teh.); Sim (Hind.); Simbi (Sans.); kidney bean.
This is a climbing perennial, or, under cultivation, an annual,
common in India, where the seeds, which vary much in form and
color, are employed as food. The beans from Tehran are black and
brown, 15 by 10 mm., with a white hilum.
Dorema Ammoniacum Don (Umbelliferae)
Vasha (Teh.); Ushna ushek (Pers.); Kandal (Afg.); Samagh
Hamama (Hind.); gum ammoniacum.
The plant yielding this exudation is found in the desert regions
of Afghanistan and Iran. The light colored gum-resin occurs in
rounded tears, agglutinated masses, or cakes; it breaks with an
opaque, shining or yellow conchoidal fracture, forming a milky
emulsion with water. The drug has a faint, peculiar odor, and a
bitter, nauseous taste. The gum is stimulating, expectorant, and
laxative. Externally it acts as a resolvent, and is used as a plaster in
asthmatic cases, and for indolent tumors and glandular swellings.
Doronicum Pardalianches L. (Compositae)
Darunaj-i-akrabi (Teh., Ham.); Darvunedge eghrebi (Schl.);
Doronic (Gr.); Doronicum Graeci (Ph. Pers.); doronicum root.
Achundow; Boiss. 3: 379; Makhjan-el-Adwiya; Ph. Ind. 2: 292;
Field 168; K.B. 315.
This ancient drug is said to have come originally from Greece
and Syria. D. scorpioides Lam. affords some supplies of the drug,
114 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. IX
while D. Fakoneri C.B.C1., of the Himalayan region, has been
identified as the origin of samples of the drug in India. It is a pe-
culiar, knotted root, like the tail of a scorpion, and white, like ala-
baster. It contains inulin instead of starch, and is acrid and bitter.
In Iran it is regarded as poisonous. It is useful in nervous depression,
and is prescribed, according to the "Doctrine of Signatures," for
persons bitten by scorpions and insects.
Dracaena Cinnabari Balf. (Liliaceae)
Khun-i-siyavash (Isf.); Dam-el-akhwain (Ar.); Hira dukhi
(Hind.); dragon's-blood resin.
Dragon's-blood is obtained from the isle of Socotra and Zanzibar,
and is imported into India through Bombay. The resin, which
exudes spontaneously from the ripening fruits, occurs in tears, the
surfaces of which are covered by a dull red powder. When broken,
the surface is glassy, translucent, and of a beautiful garnet color.
The resin is soluble in spirit and is employed for coloring varnishes.
In medicine, the resin is astringent, and is used to stop hemorrhage.
Iranis make a paste of the powdered resin and water, which is applied
to relieve pains in the legs and feet.
Dracocephalum Moldavica L. (Labiatae)
<V> aj A>J j 3\J
Bad-i-ranjah buyah (Teh.); Badrish-bu (Tab.); Badrendj-bou-
yih (Schl.); the Persian name means "the scented remedy for flatu-
lent colic"; the herb and seeds.
Achundow; Boiss. 4: 672; Ait.; Schl.; Ph. Ind. 3: 117; Cowan
(Teh.); Gilliat-Smith (Tab.).
Field 198; K.B. 315.
Bad-i-ranjah buyah is an important drug in Iran, and has been
variously referred to species of Nepeta, Calaminta, and Melissa,
plants having the odor of balm. From Tabriz Gilliat-Smith sent
seeds of the above mentioned species of Dracocephalum under the
same vernacular name, thus confirming the identification of Schlim-
mer in 1874. The seeds are black, somewhat torpedo-shaped, 2
mm. long, with a white, V-shaped mark at the pointed end. They
afford an opaque mucilage when soaked in water, and are used as a
carminative and tonic. For another source of the drug see Asperugo.
PLANTS AND DRUGS OF IRAN AND IRAQ 115
Echinops persicus Stev. (Compositae)
Shakar tiqal, "sugar of nests" (Teh.); Gol tighol of Royle;
Ph. Pers., 1681, 361; D. Hanbury, Journ. Linn. Soc., 16 Dec. 1858;
Sci. Pa. 158-164; Schl.; Apping, 1885; Ebert, 1909; Tschirch, 1912.
Field 38, 32A; W.H.M.M. 150892; K.B. 315.
Tr^hala is a sweet substance forming the cocoons of a beetle,
occurring on the leaves and stalks of species of Echinops found in
Iran, Turkey, and the Caucasus. The beetle is Larinus maculatus
Fald. (Guldigul, Pers.), one of the Curculionideae. This insect
forms a rough, chalky-looking nidus or cocoon, rounded-oval, 18
to 20 mm. long, yellowish white, rough on the outside and smooth
within. The cocoon contains 15 to 23 per cent of a sugar identical
with mycose. This peculiar secretion, known since the time of
Avicenna, and described in "Pharmacopoeia Persica" (1681), is given
for coughs and to relieve the respiratory organs.
Echium amoenum Fisch. & Mey. and other spp. (Boraginaceae)
Gul-i-gav-zaban (Teh.); the Persian name means "flowers of
oxtongue"; flowers of borage.
Field 9, 30A; W.H.M.M. 150900; K.B. 316.
The drug under this name has been supplied by Caccinia glauca
Savi and Onosma macrocephala. Schlimmer refers the drug to
Anchusa italica and A. hybrida, and Dymock to Trichodesma molle
DC. In Baluchistan the flowers are supplied by T. indicum R. Br.,
and in Sind by T. zeylanicum. It thus appears that Gul-i-gav-zaban
is a generic name applied to the blue flowers of several plants of the
borage family. The blue corollas are 3 cm. long and 12 mm. wide
at the throat, and funnel-shaped. They are considered to be a
good cardiac, tonic, and demulcent.
Echium sericeum Vahl (Boraginaceae)
Barg-i-gav-zaban, "leaves of oxtongue" (Teh.); leaves of borage.
Field 225; W.H.M.M. 150764.
This sample is a mixture of leaves, stems, and flowers of the above
plant. Other species of Echium are occasionally supplied. It is
116 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. IX
said to be a tonic medicine and useful as an application for rheuma-
tism and snake bites.
Elettaria Cardamomum Maton. (Zingiberaceae)
Hil (Iraq); Arak or Erok Hail (Bagh.); Ilachi (Hind.): car-
Field 38A, 59 (Iraq).
There are two kinds of cardamoms sold in Iran and Iraq: the
small or Malabar cardamom from the above plant, and the great or
Nepal cardamom from Amomum subulatum Roxb. (q.v.). They are
both imported, but the first kind is occasionally cultivated in Iraq in
shaded gardens. As a masticatory and for flavoring food, as in
curry, the Malabar or small cardamom is preferred by the natives,
but the other kind, which is cheaper and of less delicate flavor, is
used largely by sweetmeat makers.
Embelia Ribes Burm. (Myrsinaceae)
E 1 ^.
Birinj-i-kabuli (Teh., Isf.); Berengue Kaboli (Schl.); Baberang
(Hind.); the fruits, Embely currants.
Fl. Br. Ind. 3: 513; Schl.; Ph. Ind. 2: 349.
Field 419; K.B. 316.
This shrub grows throughout India, where the berries have long
been known as a medicine. Susruta described the anthelmintic
properties of the fruits, which were given the Sanskrit name Vrisha-
nasana, "destroyer of enemy (worm)." The drug is referred to in
all Mohammedan works of medicine, and its value in removing
tapeworm (Taenia) in children and adults has been abundantly
confirmed. The fruits are globular, dull red, with a 5-parted calyx,
and stalked. The outer shell is striated from base to apex, the seed
is horny and embedded in reddish brown afflorescence. In 1888
Warden separated the crystalline active principle, embelic acid.
Brissemoret in 1907 showed this substance to be an oxyquinone.
Entada gigas (L.) Fawc. & Rendle (Leguminosae)
Qurs-i-kamar, "nuts for loins" (Teh.); Gila (Beng.); Garabi
(Hind.); the seeds.
PLANTS AND DRUGS OF IRAN AND IRAQ 117
This plant is a gigantic shrub, remarkable for its legumes, which
are several feet long. It has been called Burmese tamarind. The
seeds are more or less heart-shaped, flattened, about 2 inches in
diameter, with a shining, brown surface. They are used by some hill
tribes for washing the hair, as they contain saponin. Aitchison
remarks that Kors-i-kamar seeds are exported from India to Iran
and employed in medicine. In Tehran they are powdered and, mixed
with yolk of egg, made into a plaster for pain in the back.
Equisetum ramosissimum Desf. (Equisetaceae)
Qantaryun (Teh.) ; the herb, horsetail.
The light green stalks of the horsetail with their brittle structure
and acute edges appear by some mistake to have been intended to
represent the centaury plant (Erythraea Centaurium Pers., Gen-
tianaceae). They could not replace the pleasantly bitter centaury
herb. Dianthus anatolicus Boiss. is called Kanturiyan in Iran, where
it is also used as a substitute for the centaury of the European flora.
The centaury, like other plants of the gentian family, is a domestic
remedy for a general tonic.
Eremurus Aucherianus Boiss. (Liliaceae)
Sirlsh-i-safld (Isf., Teh.); commercial names: chiresh, sarish,
siris, shirias; roots of the giant asphodel.
Field 1,2 (Isf.); 80A, 240.
The roots of one or more species of asphodel, including Aspho-
delus ramosus L., are found in commerce in Iran and Central Asia,
and are trade products in Mosul and Leh, either dried entire or
powdered (Sirish-i-narm). They are exported from the Balad Sinjar
district in northwestern Iraq to Syria (G.). The roots, whitish,
twisted, hard, light brown, swell and soften and partly dissolve in
water, forming a thick mucilage. Water added to the powder forms
a glue used for cementing leather, in binding books, and for other
industrial purposes. The green part of the plant is eaten.
Erysimum repandum L. (Cruciferae)
Tukhm-i-khak-i-shir (Ham.); Khakshir-talkh (Isf.); Khakechi
(Schl.) ; Khubah (Ar.) ; Kashir (Bal.) ; the seeds.
118 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. IX
Achundow; Ait.; Schl.; Boiss. 1: 189; Fl. Br. Ind. 1: 153; I.H.B.
Field 150; K.B. 317.
This small, annual herb, hoary with close, appressed hairs, is
frequent in Kashmir and Iran, and westward to Europe and West
Africa. The seeds, with those of Sisymbrium Sophia L. and S. Irio, are
exported into India from Iran under the name of Khakshlr. They
are small, oblong, 1 mm. long, reddish or yellowish brown, smooth,
and shining (not dull like those of S. Sophia). When placed in
water, they become coated with transparent mucilage. The kernel
is yellowish and oily and has the flavor of mustard. The seeds are
given in fever and, in the form of a poultice, are used to relieve
stomach pains. They are often smoked to relieve eye diseases (H.F.).
Eugenia aromatica Baill. (Myrtaceae)
Qaranful, Qaranful-asward (Iraq); Karanaphal (Ar.); Laung
(Hind.); cloves, the flower buds.
Field 43 (Iraq), 69A, 70A, 102.
Cloves, the well-known spice, consisting of the flower buds of a
tree originally belonging to the Moluccas, are sold in all bazaars in
the East. In modern medicine, cloves are used as a carminative and
stimulant to relieve irritation of the throat, and the oil to relieve the
pain of toothache. The oil, which is the most important constituent
of cloves, is obtainable to the extent of 16 to 20 per cent. It is a
mixture of a terpene and an oxygenated oil called eugenol.
Ferula galbaniflua Boiss. (Umbelliferae)
Barijah, Bariz, Rish-shar, Gavshira (Teh.); jav or gav means a
cow, and shir, milk; in allusion to the milky nature of the juice;
Boiss. 2: 988; Schl. 295; Laufer 363; Ait.; Ph. Ind. 2: 152.
Field 131, 135; W.H.M.M. 150797; K.B. 317.
The galbanum plant is found in moist localities, as in the Badghis
near Gulvan, where it grows in sandy soil. The stem is thick at the
base, tapering suddenly and reaching a height of 4 feet. The
stem, on injury, yields an orange yellow juice, which slowly con-
solidates into tears, and has a strong odor of celery. The sample
from Tehran is said to have come from Kurdistan or Mazanderan.
Galbanum is taken internally as a stomachic. Externally it is applied
PLANTS AND DRUGS OF IRAN AND IRAQ 119
as a plaster to sores and wounds. The drug contains resin 65, gum
20, and essential oil 10 to 20 per cent.
Ferula persica Willd. (Umbelliferae)
Sakbinaj (Teh.); Saka-binaja (Ar.); Sek binedge (Schl.); Saga-
penum gum. '
Achundow; Ait.; Schl.; Laufer 366; Ph. Ind. 2: 161.
Field 163; K.B. 317; W.H.M.M. 150922.
Sagapenum is a fragrant gum-resin obtained from Laristan and
Kerman. It is found in the market in tears or agglutinated into
brownish yellow cakes with a persistent, alliaceous odor and acrid
taste. It yields on distillation a volatile oil containing sulphur.
The drug has a local reputation as a plaster for rheumatism and
lumbago. Mixed with linseed oil it forms a salve for the relief of
piles and pains in the back (H.F.).
Ferula Surnbul Hook. f. (Umbelliferae)
Rishah-i-kalafs, Sumbul, also the name for celery root (Teh.);
musk or violet root.
This is a large, perennial plant of Samarkand. The root is thick
and fusiform, light and spongy, transversely wrinkled, with corky,
brown bark, and fibrous, whitish interior with resinous cells. The
odor is strong and musk-like, and the taste bitter and aromatic. It
is employed as a stimulant, nervine tonic, and antispasmodic, given
in hysteria and nervous disorders.
Ficus Carica L. (Moraceae)
Tin; common fig.
The edible fig grows wild in the mountain valleys of Kurdistan
and in the foothills, and is also cultivated throughout Iraq as a fruit
tree (G.). The figs are usually sold strung on cords hung from the
Foeniculum vulgare Mill. (Umbelliferae)
4>'U j\j 4JL>_j
Rishah-i-raziyanah (Teh.); the root of fennel.
120 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. IX
Badiyan-i-sabz, Tukhm-i-raziyanah (Teh., Ham.) ; Badyan (Afg.) ;
the fruits of fennel.
Post 356; Schl.; Ph. Ind. 2: 124; On the Commercial Varieties of
Fennel, J. C. Umney, Pharm. Journ. 58 (1897) 225; I.H.B.
Field 16, 55A, 233, 413; W.H.M.M. 150771; K.B. 318.
Fennel is a stately, umbelliferous plant cultivated for its fruits
in several parts of Europe and Asia. The fruits are frequently, in the
bazaars, confounded with aniseed (Pimpinella Anisum L.), the Per-
sian name for which is Badian, and Badiyan-i-sabz is usually applied
to fennel fruits. The taste is sweet and aromatic, and the fruits
contain from 3 to 5 per cent of essential oil with anethol as the
principal ingredient. J. C. Umney found the odor of Irani fennel
nearer to anise than any other variety of fruit examined, the per-
centage of anethol being higher and fenchone comparatively low.
Fennel is valued as a condiment and enters into mixtures given for
dysentery and colds.
The root of the fennel plant is a rather important medicine in
native practices, being to the present day esteemed as one of the
five "opening roots" of the ancients, the other four being parsley,
celery, asparagus, and butcher's broom. Fennel roots, with Carum
copticum Benth. & Hook., are given as an infusion for flatus; and
alone as an infusion for toothache and to relieve pains following
Fritillaria imperialis L. (Liliaceae)
Gul-i-sarnigun (Teh.), "the bulbs of the topsy-turvy"; "the
tubers of a plant, the flowers of which, according to the natives,
hang upside down, considered rare in Afghanistan and highly valued
as a medicine" (Aitchison). Another Persian name for this plant is
Gul-i-shirper, "flowers of six feathers."
Boiss. 5: 189; Ph. Ind. 3: 498.
Field 178, 189; W.H.M.M. 150882; K.B. 318.
Crown imperial is common on the mountain slopes of Kurdistan.
The drug consists of broken pieces of thick, whitish corms, without
odor or taste. The starch is oval and regular. A toxic alkaloid has
been separated from them by Fragner (1888). The corms of this
plant are valued as a medicine in the Far East, chiefly for chest
complaints and toothache. Regarding the Irani drug, it is said,
PLANTS AND DRUGS OF IRAN AND IRAQ 121
"When a woman has a child, a paste is made from it and put on the
stomache to reduce pain" (C.).
Fumaria parviflora Lam. (Fumariaceae)
O J \2>
Shatarrah (Teh., Isf.); Tukhm-i-shatarrah (Ham.); Shahtarrah,
"royal herb"; Tarrah, "potherb" (Pens.); the plant.
Achundow; Schl.; Boiss. 1: 135; Fl. Br. Ind. 1: 128; I.H.B.;
Ph. Ind. 1: 114.
Field 13 (Isf.), 406, 426; W.H.M.M. 150770; K.B. 318.
The fumitories are medicinal herbs employed throughout India,
Afghanistan, and Baluchistan. The herb and fruits are both used.
The herb occurs in broken fragments of stems and leaves with a
slightly acid and astringent taste. The fruits are green, globular,
the size of a pinhead, apiculate, rugulose on the surface, and one-
seeded. They have scarcely any odor and the taste is slightly acrid
and astringent. The plant contains fumaric acid and the alkaloid
fumarine. Shatarrah is highly esteemed by Mohammedans in
India; it is said to purify the blood and act as a laxative and diuretic.
In Iran it is prepared like tea to relieve pains in the back in
Fungi, see Agaric and Polyporus officinalis.
Gentiana lutea L. (Gentianaceae)
Jutiyana (Isf.); Juntiyana (Duk.); gentian root.
European gentian root is prescribed with the fragrant fruits of
the cow-parsnip to correct its bitterness. The root of Gentiana
Olivieri Griseb., growing on the mountains in western Iran, is occa-
sionally met with in the bazaars, and represents the Eastern gentian.
Glossostemon Bruguieri Desf. (Sterculiaceae)
Buqnaq (Teh.); Erok orab kuzzi (Iraq); Arab qosi (Turk.);
Mughat (Egy.) ; the root.
Field 83A; W.H.M.M. 150747.
This is a large, cabbage-like, perennial herb with broad leaves
and small, reddish brown flowers. The root is sold in the bazaars of
122 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. IX
Egypt and Baghdad in a powdered form and employed by Coptic
and Arabian women as a strengthening medicine. Before 1914
it was exported in considerable quantities, chiefly to Egypt, as an
aphrodisiac. A decoction of the root is sometimes used at Baghdad
as a cough cure (G.).
Glycyrrhiza glabra L. (Leguminosae)
Rishah-i-asl-i-sus (Teh.); Bekh-sus; the root.
Rubb-i-sus, Asal-alsus; the sweet extract; licorice.
Achundow; Ait.; Boiss. 2: 202; Post 277; Schl.; Ph. Ind. 1: 491.
Field 243, 259; K.B. 319.
The licorice plant is a characteristic and common shrub in the
Badghis and Khorasan at an altitude of about 2,000 feet, and occurs
also in Baluchistan. The annual shoots grow to 4 feet from
enormous underground rootstalks, which are sometimes used as
fuel. The nomads at Yezd prepare an extract from these roots.
India obtains market supplies of the root and extract from Iran and
Sind ; it has been suggested that the plant might be cultivated in the
North- Western Frontier Province. Throughout Asia, licorice root
and its extract, from time immemorial, have been used for cough
and chest complaints.
Licorice root is also given to relieve acute indigestion from
eating fruit (H.F.). The plant is said to yield an aphrodisiac (G.).
Gossypium sp. (Malvaceae)
Cotton (Qutn, Ar.) is the hair-like cells clothing the seeds of the
cotton plant. Specimens of cotton and seeds presented to Field
Museum by the Rustam Agricultural Experimental Farm at Hinaidi,
G. herbaceum L. Iraqi or Indian cotton (Qutn Iraqi); probably
indigenous or at least cultivated for many centuries. (Field 6A.)
G. barbadense L. Sea Island cotton. (Field 2A.)
G. hirsutum L. "Mesowhite" (Qutn Amrikani). A derivative
of the long-staple American upland cotton. (Field 38 [Iraq]; 8A,
PLANTS AND DRUGS OF IRAN AND IRAQ 123
G. mexicanum Tod. Mexican cotton introduced into India in
1804. The seeds yield a copious, woolly floss. (Field 13 [Iraq]; 1A.)
,At Rustam Farm the following varieties of cotton are also grown:
(a) Rustam No. 65. Field 3A. Origin Iraq.
(6) Rustam No. 124. Field 5A, 9A. Origin Punjab, India.
(c) Mosul White. Field 4A. Origin Mosul, Iraq.
(d) G. peruvianum. Ish-hony. Field 11A, 12A. Origin Egypt.
(e) Rustam No. 138. Field 7A. Origin Acala.
Guest (p. 39) records the following information: "Gossypium
(Malvaceae). Cotton. Qutn (Ar.), Pambuq (Turk.), Lukah (Kurd.),
"Iraqi or Indian Cotton, G. herbaceum L. (Qutn Iraqi), a well-
known, short-stapled type, is probably indigenous or has at least
been cultivated in Iraq for many centuries. It is still grown to some
extent as a summer crop, especially on the northern plains where
springs or streams provide irrigation water. The lint is used chiefly
for stuffing. It is the local practice to pick this type of cotton with
the boll intact, the dry boll and other rubbish being removed later.
"After the War the Department of Agriculture tried many
foreign varieties of cotton and eventually issued seed of 'Meso-
white,' a derivative of the long-stapled American Upland cotton,
G. hirsutum L. (Qutn Amrikani). A ginnery was erected by the
British Cotton Growing Association, who did much to encourage
this crop. The cultivation of Mesowhite cotton as an irrigated
summer crop rapidly became popular in lower Iraq and after ten
years (in 1928) the annual export of cotton exceeded 5,000 bales of
400 pounds each. Since that year the size of the crop has fallen off
very rapidly, chiefly owing to the slump in world prices which has
discouraged the local farmers. In 1932 the export of bales of cotton
from Iraq amounted to only about four hundred. One or two other
varieties of American cotton, such as Acala, have done well in trials
at Rustam Farm; this is a cotton inferior to Mesowhite but gives a
higher yield and ginning percentage.
"Egyptian cottons (Qutn Misri) have also been tried but have
not proved successful under local conditions."
Gypsophila paniculata L. (Caryophyllaceae)
El-sabuniyeh (Ar.); Zuleh (Ham.); Saosafid, Bekh (Ait.); Kundur,
Kundusch (Achundow) ; soap-root.
124 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. IX
Ait.; Post; Boiss. 1: 542; Ph. Ind. 1:155.
This is a shrubby plant of northern Iran, Afghanistan, ,the
Caucasus, and Turkestan, 3 to 4 feet high, with numerous stems
springing from the perennial rootstock. The underground root-
stocks are collected and used as soap for washing the hair and
clothes. The Irani drug is no doubt a substitute for the older
Roman and Egyptian Struthium, the root of G. Struthium L. of
southern Europe. The roots contain from 6 to 16 per cent saponin.
Halimodendron argenteum Fisch. (Leguminosae)
Field 14, 31 (Iraq).
Halimodendron is a thorny shrub found in Iran, the Caucasus,
and Central Asia. Fruits of this plant were collected without
a local name, from Yezd-i-Khast between Isfahan and Shiraz.
The thorns are used in native surgical operations. Inflated pods, 2
cm. long and oblique, are brown, and contain two or three seeds
like chick peas.
Helianthus annuus L. (Compositae)
Aftab gardan (Teh.) ; Ward-ash-shams, Shams-wa-qamar (Iraq) ;
Qunah baqan (Turk.); sunflower seeds.
Field 122 (Teh.), 72, 73 (Iraq).
Two kinds of sunflower seeds are represented in these collections:
black, ovate-elongate, 12 by 6 mm.; and white, smooth, broader
achenes, 12 by 7 mm. There is a good market for these seeds, which
are used for human consumption and for bird food, and yield by
expression an oil for cooking purposes. Many tons of the seeds are
produced annually in the U.S.S.R.
Helicteres Isora L. (Sterculiaceae)
Bahman-i-pich, Pachman-i-puh (Teh.) ; Kisht bar Kisht (Pers.) ;
Pechak, Marorphali (Hind.); Avartin (Sans.); the Persian and San-
skrit names signify the furrows on a ploughed field ; the spiral fruits.
Ibn Baitar; Achundow; Fl. Br. Ind. 1: 365; Ph. Ind. 1: 231.
Field 137; K.B. 320.
The East Indian screw tree occurs in dry forests throughout
central and western India and in Ceylon, Java, and northern Aus-
tralia. The spirally curved fruits are sold in all Indian bazaars and
PLANTS AND DRUGS OF IRAN AND IRAQ 125
in more northern countries. The fruit is composed of fine, slender,
angular carpels twisted like corkscrews, which together form a cone
3.5 to 5 cm. long. The carpels are pubescent and greenish brown,
and each one contains a single row of dark brown, angular seeds.
The drug has demulcent and slightly astringent properties, and
is employed as a medicine for dysentery and for griping of bowels
and flatulence in children.
Heracleum persicum Desf. (Umbelliferae)
Gul-i-sipar (Teh.); Gul-i-parr (Isf.); Goleper (Kerm.); Giafari
(Schl.); the fruits.
Schl.; Post; Boiss. 2: 1044.
Field 434; W.H.M.M. 150779; K.B. 320.
This species of cow parsnip is indigenous to the moist valleys of
the Elburz Mountains, and is related to H. pubescens M.B., of a
wider range. Boissier refers the plant Goulpere to H. lasiopetalum.
The fruits, which are sold as a spice and used in pickles, are ovate-
oblong, villous on the back, the margin aculeate, the dorsal vittae
thick and clavate, reaching to two-thirds the length of the mericarp.
While some of these plants are used medicinally and for food, other
species in America and Europe are poisonous and produce erysipela-
tous inflammation (Cormerin, "Des Plantes Ve"neneuses," 1887).
Hibiscus cannabinus L. (Malvaceae)
Jiljil (Iraq); Hab-el-zalim (Ar.); Palsan (Hind.); Ambari (Duk.);
Field 61 (Iraq).
The Deccan hemp plant is grown in western India and the tropics.
The seeds are dull grayish brown, triangular or kidney-shaped, 5
by 3 mm. They contain an oil useful for culinary and lubricating
purposes. The seeds are used in medicine and as cattle food.
H. Trionum L., Qunnab, called Jiljil near Basra, yields a bast
fiber resembling that of the Deccan (H.F.).
Holarrhena antidysenterica Wall. (Apocynaceae)
Mlvah-i-zaban-i-gunjishk, Tukhm-zaban-i-gunjishk-i-talkh, "the
seeds of the bitter sparrow's tongue" (Pers.) ; Lizan ul asafir (Achun-
dow); Indrajaou (Hind.); Estrefanthus; the seeds.
126 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. IX
Ph. Ind. 2: 392; Pyman, Journ. Chem. Soc. 1919; Fl. Br. Ind.
W.H.M.M. 150793; K.B. 320.
This small, deciduous tree is found in the tropical Himalayas from
the Chenab westward, and throughout the drier forests of India to
Travancore and Malacca. Samples of the seed came from Hamadan
and Tehran, showing that the Indian drug is well established in
Iran. The seeds are narrowly linear-oblong, glabrous, and brown,
about 12 mm. long. They have a bitter taste due to the presence of
the alkaloid wrightine (conessine), which acts like emetine. The
seeds are reputed to have tonic and aphrodisiac properties.
Hordeum vulgare L. (Gramineae)
oU^< a->- -\-jL* aJ>-
Jau, Joyi safid (white), Joyi siyah (black) (Iraq); Jao (Sind);
Ju (Kurd.); Jav (Hind.); barley.
Field 59, 71, 275; 11, 32, 44, 46, 70 (Iraq).
Barley is the most widely cultivated grain and forage crop
throughout Iraq. The variety hexastichon, or six-rowed barley, has
been found in the earliest Egyptian monuments and is the variety
most frequently grown in India and Iraq. Early sown barley pro-
vides the greater part of the winter grazing in the irrigated areas;
horses and other animals are also fed on the grain. Local barleys
yield well, but are generally unsuitable for malting. The collection
includes specimens of white and black barley, the varieties distichon,
hexastichon, and erectum, and the Alleidum barley of Iraq. Pearl
barley is imported from Europe and is obtainable in most Eastern
bazaars. Mason quotes a saying in Iran, "What has disease to do
with men who live upon barley-bread and buttermilk?"
Guest (p. 46) gives the following information concerning barley:
"Hordeum (Gramineae). Barley grass, Barley. Sha'ir, etc.
" H. murinum L., Wall Barley or Barley grass. Sha'irah, Shu-
wairib, Sha'ur, etc. Small tufted annual grass with a flattened
inflorescence like a miniature barley. Widely distributed in fields,
on channels and ditches, by waysides and in waste places. March-
April. In maturity it is a fodder plant of rather low feeding value,
though the young growth is nutritious. The seeds are barbed and
the awns serrated; hence the mature plants are likely to injure the
tender parts of stock.
PLANTS AND DRUGS OF IRAN AND IRAQ 127
" H. bulbosum L. Abu Suwaif, Gizar Gia (Kurd.), etc. A tall
perennial barley grass with a bulbous root. A common weed in
cereal fields on the upper plains and in the valleys of Kurdistan, often
projecting conspicuously above the ears of the crop. March-May.
It is a useful fodder plant sometimes preserved for winter feeding.
Children often eat the bulbous roots.
"H. spontaneum K. Koch. Tall grass similar to the above. Com-
mon on the rocky slopes of Jebel Sinjar and other hills. April-May.
"H. sativum Pers. (H. vulgare L.). Sha'Ir, Arpa (Turk.), Ju
(Kurd.). The most widely cultivated grain and forage crop through-
out Iraq; with wheat, rice, and dates it forms the staple food of the
majority of the inhabitants. Early-sown barley provides the greater
part of the winter grazing in the irrigated areas; horses and other
animals are also fed on the grain. The climate is unfavorable for
the slow ripening which is necessary to produce good malting barley,
since the summer comes on very suddenly, almost before the spring
is over. Two-rowed barley (var. distichori) is generally known as
Sha'Ir Abu Suwaif or Sha'Ir Abu Sikkatain; six-rowed barley (var.
hexastichon) as Sha'Ir Sparqalan."
In the collections of the Rustam Agricultural Experimental
Farm at Hinaidi near Baghdad, Iraq, the following varieties of barley
(a) H. sativum dest. erect., nigrum. Sha'Ir Abu Suwaif. Rustam
No. 127. Field 23A. Origin Al Mahmudiya, Iraq.
(6) H. sativum Pers. ( H. vulgare L.) albidum. Rustam No. 128.
Field 24A. Origin Biskra.
(c) H sativum distichon. Chilian barley. Rustam No. 160.
Field 25A. Origin Australia.
(d) H. hexastichon albidum. Circlan barley. Rustam No. 217.
Field 22A. Origin Iraq.
(e) H. sativum albidum. California barley. Rustam No. 150.
(/) H. sativum albidum. Sha'Ir. Rustam No. 218. Field 21A.
Origin Iraq. (H.F.)
Hyoscyamus reticulatus L. (Solanaceae)
Bazr-i-banj (Teh., Ham.); Kohi bang (Bal.); Banj barri (Iraq);
Benj (Ar.); Bango (Port.); henbane seeds.
128 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. IX
Ait.; Boiss. 4: 295; Schl.; Post; Ph. Ind. 2: 626.
Field 217; K.B. 321.
This species of Hyoscyamus, as well as H. muticus L. and H.
pusillus L., is found wild in Iran and Syria. Aitchison observed that
goats and sheep grazed on henbane plants without apparently bad
effects, and the shepherds did not look upon these plants as poison-
ous. The seeds, however, are regarded by native physicians to be
as poisonous as opium; they are exported from Iran to India. Hen-
bane seeds are reniform, laterally compressed, grayish brown, with
the testa finely reticulated. The taste is oily, bitter, and acrid;
they contain the poisonous alkaloid, hyoscyamine. The smoke of
the seed is inhaled for toothache (H.F.).
Hyssopus officinalis L. var. angustifolia Boiss. (Labiatae)
Gul-i-punah (Teh.); Zupha-e-yabis (Ar.); Jupha (Hind.); hyssop,
The true hyssop is a small, aromatic plant of Iran, Sind, and
southern Europe. It is from 6 to 10 inches high, with a slender, square
stem, hairy flowers in oblong spikes, of a brownish or bluish purple
color and with the odor of hay. The seeds are oblong, three-angled,
dark brown mottled with a red tint. The plant is given as a stimu-
lant, carminative, and diaphoretic.
Illicium verum Hook. f. (Magnoliaceae)
<_ iJai- jUxol*
Badiyan-i-khata'i, "anise of China" (Pers.); from Tehran.
Schl.; Ph. Ind. 1:41.
Field 190; W.H.M.M. 150715; K.B. 321.
The star anise of commerce is obtained from trees growing in
South China and Indo-China. Star anise was a new medicine and
spice in Persia a hundred years ago, but the fruits and oil are now
shipped regularly to India from China, and reach Iran via Bombay.
The star-shaped fruits, composed of eight brown, radiating, boat-
shaped carpels, vary from 3 to 3.5 cm. in diameter. They contain
about 5 per cent of essential oil, consisting of solid and liquid anethol.
The fruits and oil are stomachic, given to relieve cough and lung
affections, and are used in confectionery and for seasoning food.
PLANTS AND DRUGS OF IRAN AND IRAQ 129
Indigofera Roxburgh!! Jaume (Leguminosae)
'Adas-i-talkh (Teh.); Bin-i-talkh (Isf.); the seeds.
Field 442; W.H.M.M. 150872.
These seeds are red in color, polished, flattened, oblong, 4 by
2 mm., very hard, and bitter. They are given to relieve stomach
pains (H.F.), and are similar to seeds of an allied plant, /. tri-
foliata L., prescribed in Guzrat as a restorative.
Indigofera tinctoria L. (Leguminosae)
Rang-i-kirmam, Nasabldah-i-kirmani(?), Rang-i-sabldah, Rang-
i-vasmah (Teh.); Wasma (Punj.); Nil (Hind.); leaves of the
Field 112A, 152; W.H.M.M. 150762, 150790.
It is of historic interest to note that the old name for indigo leaves
in the Punjab, Iran, and Turkey is Wasma, the name formerly used
for woad, the dye obtained from Isatis tinctoria, and used by the
early Britons. Isatis is indigenous to the Kuram Valley, where it is
called Ranjowah or cat's filth. Indigo was known in Avicenna's
time, and India has cultivated and produced the dye as a leading
industry for several generations. The leaves, like henna, are sold
in both coarse and fine powder, and used chiefly as a cosmetic for
coloring the skin.
Inula Helenium L. (Compositae)
Ra's-i-hindi, Ghaza gouzanah (Teh.); Anduz (Ham.); Pil gush,
"elephant's ear"; Rasan, Rasna of the Hindus; Andiz otu (Turk.,
see Boiss. 2: 186); Zanjabil chami, "ginger of Damos"; Zanjabil-i-
shami, "Syrian Costus"; Anne"e (Fr.); Helenion (Gr.); Enula Cam-
pana (Med. Lat.); elecampane root.
Ph. Pers.; Schl.; Boiss.; Pharmacog. 340; Ph. Ind. 2: 259.
Field 222 ; K.B. 322.
Elecampane root was an ancient medicine among the Greeks,
and its use spread to other parts of Europe and to Asia. The root
is hard and horny, grayish brown in color, paler within. Crystals
are seen in the interstices of the wood in old commercial samples.
The root, which has an agreeable, aromatic odor, and a warm, bitter
130 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. IX
taste, is given for bronchitis and tuberculosis, and as a general
aromatic tonic. A small piece is eaten to reduce phlegm (H.F.).
Ipomoea hederacea Jacq. (Convolvulaceae)
Tukhm-i-nilufar (Teh.); Habb-el-nil (Ham.); Tukhm-i-nil; Kal-
adanah, "black seed" (Hind.); pharbitis seeds.
Ait; Schl.; Fl. Br. Ind. 4: 197; Ph. Ind. 2: 532; B.P. 1914.
Field 44; W.H.M.M. 150875; K.B. 322.
The above plant grows throughout India; the flowers are blue,
hence the name Nil, applied also to the water lily. The seeds are
blackish, forming the quadrant of a sphere, about 5 mm. long, with
a minute protuberance at the upper end; they have a longitudinal,
dorsal groove, and dark brown hairs on the hilar depression. The
action of these seeds is cathartic, due to the presence of an acrid
resin. They are locally considered poisonous.
Ipomoea Turpethum R. Br. (Convolvulaceae)
Turbud (Teh.); Turbad (Leh); Triorit, Triputa (Sans.); turpeth
Field 223; W.H.M.M. 150907.
The plant is a native of India, Ceylon, and the Malay Archi-
pelago; the root, from earliest times, has been a valued medicine
in the East. Turpeth occurs in pieces of varying length, from 10 to
20 cm. long and 1 to 2 cm. wide, deeply wrinkled longitudinally, and
of a dull gray or brown color. The odor is slight, the taste nauseous
but slowly developed. The root contains from 5 to 10 per cent of
resin, partly soluble in ether. Turpeth is a cathartic, used in lum-
bago and kidney trouble, given either alone or in combination with
Iris spuria Pall. (Iridaceae)
Bikh-i-banafshah, Rlshah-i-arisa (Teh.); Irisha (Ind. bazaars);
"violet root," the name is a corruption of the Greek; orris root,
root of graveyard iris.
Schl.; Boiss. 5: 126; Ph. Ind. 3: 451; I.H.B.
Field 132, 239; W.H.M.M. 150759, 150915; K.B. 323.
PLANTS AND DRUGS OF IRAN AND IRAQ 131
Violet root or orris root was recognized in ancient Greece and
Rome and has long been known throughout the East, where the root
is used for its perfume and as a medicine. The drug is obtained from
more than one species, and the specimens differ in their properties
and aroma. Aitchison says the rhizome called Orisa in Afghanistan
is brought from Bijnort to the Meshed market. Bombay is supplied
with orris root from Iran and Kashmir, and some of the Irani root
comes from Kurdistan. A specimen of Banafshah from Iraq (Field
23, Iraq) was a well-trimmed sample of orris root from Europe (/.
florentina L.). It is given as an infusion to relieve headache, and is
prescribed for excessive labor pains (H.F.).
Jateorhiza Columba Miers (Menispermaceae)
Kulambu (Teh.); Kalamb-ki-jar (Hind.); calumba root.
Field 209; W.H.M.M. 150780.
Calumba root, obtained from climbing plants growing in the
forests of the Zambezi in Portuguese East Africa, has established
itself as a drug in nearly every part of the world. The dry root is
met with in circular or oval, transverse slices about 1 to 2 inches in
diameter. The taste is very bitter, aromatic, and mucilaginous.
Calumba is employed as a stomachic and bitter tonic. It contains
no tannin, so can be combined with iron salts.
Juglans regia L. (Juglandaceae)
Girdu (Teh.); Charmaghy (Pers.); Jawz-i-rumi (Afg.); Joz, Goz
(Turk.); Guzk (Kurd.); Akhrot (Hind.); the walnut tree.
The walnut is a handsome tree in Iran, Kashmir, and China.
The leaves, bark, nuts, and oil are used in medicine. In Iraq culti-
vated walnut trees, giving nuts with a soft shell, are called Chagzi,
those with a hard shell, Metahk. The nuts are somewhat smaller
than those of Europe.
Juniperus excelsa Bieb. (Coniferae)
Abhil, Aabb-el-harar (Teh.); Harhar-kohl (Afg.); Hab-el-a'ra'r
(Ind. bazaars); juniper berries.
Field 248; W.H.M.M. 150876.
132 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. IX
The juniper berries sold in Tehran are said to be collected in the
Elburz Mountains. The fruit is a galbulus, gray-brown, 8 mm. in
diameter, apex with a triradiate scar; it contains three hard, triangu-
lar seeds, with large oil glands and yellow resin. The odor is like
turpentine, and the taste sweetish. The fruits are a well-known
drug in India, where they are imported from the West. They and
the oil have a diuretic action and are administered for dysmenorrhea
and intestinal indigestion. The leaves are used as incense in
Lactuca sativa L. (Compositae)
Tukhm-i-kahu (Teh.); Bazrul khasa (Ar.); Kahu-khaskabija
(Hind.); lettuce fruits.
Field 210; W.H.M.M. 150740.
The "seeds" or fruits are gray, elongated, 4 by 1 mm., ribbed
longitudinally, pointed at the apex; the odor is slightly aromatic
and the taste bitter. An infusion of the fruits is given in fevers
typhoid in particular (H.F.).
Lettuce opium or lactucarium, mentioned in old pharmacopoeias,
was a concrete, milky juice obtained by bruising the stems. This
drug now seems to have disappeared from the markets.
Lagenaria vulgaris Ser. (Cucurbitaceae)
^ un jof ^
Tukhm-i-kadu qalyani (Teh.); Ghya ke bij (Hind.); seeds of
the bottle gourd.
Field 121, 211.
This is a climbing plant found wild in India, the Moluccas, and
Ethiopia (Abyssinia). In cultivation the fruit assumes many forms,
the best known of which are the pilgrim's gourd, trumpet gourd,
and the calabash.
The seeds are nutritive and diuretic and constitute one of the
five cucurbitaceous seeds; see Citrullus vulgaris Schrad. They are
given as an infusion in typhoid (H.F.).
Lallemantia ibirica F. & M. (Labiatae)
Balingu shahrl (Teh.); Gara za'rak, "little black seeds" (Tab.).
PLANTS AND DRUGS OF IRAN AND IRAQ 133
The seeds of this plant are larger than those of L. Royleana
Benth., being 5 by 1.5 mm., brownish in color, and with a V-shaped
mark at the apex. They slowly become coated with mucilage when
placed in water. The plant is one of the potherbs of Iran.
Lallemantia Royleana Benth. (Labiatae)
Balingu (Ham.); Balingu-shirazi (Teh.); seeds.
Boiss. 4: 674; Ph. Ind. 3: 90.
Field 4; 15 (Iraq); W.H.M.M. 150901; K.B. 323.
This plant is found throughout Iran, Baluchistan, Afghanistan,
Turkestan, and northern India.
The seeds are black, narrowly oblong, 3 by 1 mm., smooth,
angled on the inner side, arched on the other, a white spot at the
narrow end or umbilicus. When soaked in water they immediately
become coated with an opaque, gray, tasteless mucilage. The seeds
are used for coughs.
Languas officinarum Burkill (Alpinia officinarum Hance)
Khulanjan (Teh.); lesser galangal.
Schl.; Ph. Ind. 3: 437; Sci. Papers 370.
W.H.M.M. 150877; K.B. 324.
This plant is indigenous to the Chinese island of Hainan, and is
cultivated on the neighboring coast of Kwangtung and in Siam. The
rhizome is an ancient spice and medicine of the East and is occasion-
ally brought to Europe. The root is about 5 cm. long and less than
1.3 cm. in diameter, often branching, of a rusty brown color, longi-
tudinally striated, and transversely marked with remains of leaf
sheaths. The odor is aromatic and the taste hot and spicy. Galangal
root is used as a condiment and is given as a stomachic and for
Lathyrus sativus L. (Leguminosae)
Hurtamun (Iraq); Kesari (Hind.); Lakh (Bom.); Lang (Guz.);
the chickling vetch and seeds.
Field 74 (Iraq), 65A.
134 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. IX
This annual herb is indigenous to the region that extends from the
Caucasus to northern India, and is frequently cultivated in India
and Iraq as a winter crop. The seeds are used for human consump-
tion and for feeding animals; as a green manure or forage crop it
surpasses other vetches. It has for a long time been known that a
form of paralysis named Lathyrism is believed to result when this
pulse is eaten continuously for some length of time. Guest, how-
ever, states that there is no evidence that its harmful nature has
ever been recorded in Iraq.
Lavandula dentata L. (Labiatae)
Ustukhudus (Teh.); Osthoukhodouce (Schl.); the Persian name
is derived from the Greek; flower heads.
See paper on this drug by I. H. Burkill in the Journ. As. Soc.
Bengal, N. S., V, No. 3, March, 1909, 67-71; Ph. Ind. 3: 93;
Boiss. 4: 540.
Field 18; W.H.M.M. 150737; K.B. 324.
These are the flower heads of a species of lavender sold in Tehran
and brought from Shiraz. They constitute an ancient drug used by
the Greeks and referred to by Arabian and Persian physicians.
The name has also been applied toL. Stoechas L., the Staechus of old
works on materia medica. The flowering spikes have the odor of
rosemary and camphor, and yield an essential oil containing dextro-
camphor and dextro-fenchone. In the form of an infusion the drug
is given for catarrh and malaria; it is also used for washing wounds
Lawsonia alba Lam. (Lythraceae)
Hinnay-i-barg (Teh.); Hinna (Iraq); Rang-mehndi (Hind.);
Camphire (Syr.) ; henna leaves.
Field 74, 188, 220; 19, 45 (Iraq); W.H.M.M. 150819, 150863.
The henna plant is cultivated throughout India on account of
its leaves, which yield the henna dye, and as a garden hedge plant.
They are sold in the shops in two forms: (1) the broken leaves, and
(2) the leaves called "Rangh" reduced to fine powder and mixed with
a small quantity of mustard oil. The principal value is as an article
of the toilet, for staining the finger nails, hands, and feet a dull
orange color, and for dyeing the hair bright red. The use of henna
PLANTS AND DRUGS OF IRAN AND IRAQ 135
as a cosmetic dates from very ancient times; it is practiced by
Mohammedan women, and has become a vogue in Europe. Staining
the finger nails with henna to make them resemble hazelnuts is called
"funduq bastan." Henna is also used as an external application for
skin diseases, blind boils, and leprosy. It is painted on the pubic
region for stoppage of bladder (H.F.). The seeds contain about
10 per cent of fixed oil.
Lecanora esculenta Eversm. (Parmeliaceae)
Shir-zad (Teh.); Chir zadi, Agalactie (Schl.); the lichen.
Holmes, Manna, Chem. & Drugg. 92: 25 (1920).
Field 418; W.H.M.M. 150752; K.B. 325.
This manna lichen is abundant in North Africa and western
Asia, and locally in the desert of Seistan. It varies from the size of
a pea to a small nut, clear brown or whitish; the interior is soft,
white, with interlacing hyphae and crystals of calcium oxalate.
There is a tendency for the thallus to develop excrescences of a
nodular form which easily become free and drift about with the
wind in the desert. Schlimmer gives references to the use of this
lichen as food from the time of Alexander the Great. It contains
lichenin. Its nutritive power is very low. The name of the drug
means "milk begetting," and it is employed to increase the flow of
Other lichens referred to in the Field collection:
Usnea sp. (28A), a lichen of Iraq and Iran, called Lihayat-as-
shayib, or "old man's beard." This is mixed with flour in bread-
making, and a decoction is sometimes taken to correct bad breath.
An Alpine lichen (87A) called Lachyat-as-sheikh. This is used as
a perfume. Perfumed lichens have been observed in the genera
Evcrnia, Ramalina, and Zobaria.
Boucerosca Aucheri(1}, a lichen called Marmut, used by Brahuis
in languor and oppression (Ait.). Pala-mangy and Mahriz are the
Kashmir names of two lichens employed to dye the nails and hands
as substitutes for henna (Ait.). One of these is probably Squamaria
Lens esculenta Moench (Leguminosae)
Nisik (Kurd, in Iraq); Adas (Turk.); Masur (Hind.); the lentil.
136 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. IX
Field 48, 66, 68 (Iraq); 105A.
The lentil is an excellent fodder or grazing plant, affording a
most nutritious pulse. As an article of food it has been known from
the most ancient times; specimens have been discovered in the tombs
of Egypt dated 1500 B.C., and are shown in the Wellcome Historical
Medical Museum. Lentils are used as food whole or split (when
they are called in India "Dall"), and in the form of flour. A speci-
men in the American School for Boys, Baghdad, is labeled "Adas mar,
lentils ground and taken by women to facilitate parturition" (H.F.).
Lepidium Draba L. (Cruciferae)
Muchchah (Isf.); Bajindak (Afg,, Hind.); Buski (Bal.); hoary
The hoary cress is a weed of cultivation distributed westward to
Europe. In Tabriz the young shoots are used as a salad or potherb
under the name of "Khili-wili." The seeds, smaller than those of L.
sativum, are oval and dark brown. Seven or eight seeds are given
as a dose for flatulence.
Lepidium sativum L. (Cruciferae)
Tukhm-i-shahl (Teh.); Tukhm tartizak (Isf.); Halim (Hind.);
Asalia (Bom.); Tara tezak (Afg.); cress seed.
Ait.; Schl.; Ph. Ind. 1: 120; Boiss. 1: 354.
Field 31, 448; W.H.M.M. 150717; K.B. 325.
Garden cress is a native of Iran, and is widely distributed as a
cultivated plant eastward to Tibet. The seeds are exported as a drug
from Iran to India, and westward to Europe. They are light brown
or reddish brown, oblong, 3 by 1.2 mm., with a depression on the
inner margin, and a white spot at one end, have a pungent, cress-
like taste, and become coated with transparent mucilage when
soaked in water. They are tonic, aphrodisiac, and diuretic.
Linum usi tatissimum L. (Linaceae)
Tukhm-i-bazrak, Bazrak (Ham.); Basarak Katrin, "little seed
of flax" (Pers.); Tukhm-i-katan (Ait.); Bazr ul Kattan (Achundow);
PLANTS AND DRUGS OF IRAN AND IRAQ 137
Bizre Kattane (Schl.) ; the names for linseed in India are Alsi, Atasi,
and Alashi; linseed.
Ph. Ind. 1:239.
Field 21; 63, 67 (Moroccan and River Plate seeds from Iraq);
W.H.M.M. 150809, 150920; K.B. 326.
Aitchison informs us that in Afghanistan the flax plant and seed
are known as Zagher; the oil of the seed as Roghan-i-zagher; the fiber
and linen cloth as Katan or Katun. The plant is cultivated in Turkes-
tan for the oil of its seeds, but, as in India, the fiber is not collected.
In Iraq Moroccan linseed has been distributed in considerable quan-
tities as Indian varieties have been severely attacked by rust disease
(G.). The oil is valued for various industrial purposes and the
seeds are eaten as sweetmeats. Boiled with Althaea sp., the seeds
are used as a poultice for boils (H.F.).
Lolium rigidum Gaud. (Gramineae)
Gul-i-chaman (Teh.); Ziwan (Iraq); rigid rye grass; seeds.
This is a tufted annual grass grazed by sheep and other animals.
It is related to the darnel grass (L. temutenlum), "Jamdar," which is
regarded as an obnoxious weed, since its seeds are sometimes infected
by an ergot fungus generating a narcotic poison. The use of the
seeds sold in Tehran is not known.
Loranthus Grewinkii Boiss. and Bunge (Loranthaceae)
Kishmish-i-kuli (Teh.); Kishmish-kawali (Ind. bazaars); Dibk
(Ar.); mistletoe berries.
Field 139; W.H.M.M. 150756.
These fruits are called raisins of Kawali, Kawali being the name
for gypsies in Iraq and Iran. Le Bode in his "Travels in Lauristan
and Arabistan" mentions his being shown in the forests of the Zagros
Mountains, on the road from Kermanshah to Baghdad, a fruit
called by the natives Angur-i-kauli (Kawali) or grapes of Kauli, a
parasite on the oak. The dried berries are rounded, 8 mm. in diam-
eter, soft, dark brown, and shriveled, and have one seed. They
are mawkish in taste, containing a form of caoutchouc which can
be drawn out in threads. The author of the "Makhzan-el-Adwiya"
138 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. IX
says the properties of the berries are resolvent and laxative. The
dried berries mixed with water are used as a depilatory (H.F.).
Luffa acutangula Roxb. (Cucurbitaceae)
Turi (Teh.); Tukhm-i-turi (Afg.); loofah or towel gourd; the
The plant is called, in Sanskrit, Koshataki, a general name for
the genus Luffa, from Kosha, the cocoon of a silkworm, and in
allusion to the way in which the seeds are enclosed in a thin, fibrous
network, which when dry is used as a flesh brush or bath sponge.
The seeds are gray, oval, flat, 12 to 14 by 8 mm., with a rough surface
marked with small, irregular, black specks. The seeds are medicinal;
they possess purgative and emetic properties and yield an oil.
Mallotus philippinensis Muell. Arg. (Euphorbiaceae)
Qunbalilah (Teh.); Kamela (Hind., Bom.); Kapila (Mad.);
Kamala consists of the red glands that form on the fruit of this
tree, which grows throughout tropical India. The drug is a red,
heavy powder, somewhat gritty, insoluble in water, but partly
dissolving, with an orange color, in alcohol. This drug is used as an
anthelmintic. Formerly employed as a dye for silk and wool, it has
been almost entirely replaced by aniline dyes.
Malva sylvestris L. var. mauritiana Boiss. (Malvaceae)
Gul-i-panirak, Tukhm-i-khabazi (Teh.); Khitmi-i-kuchak, "small
khitmi" (Pers.); Penirek, Khib-baze (Schl.); Hamam Komandji
(Turk.) ; flowers and fruits of common mallow.
Boiss. 1: 819; Ph. Ind. 1: 204.
Field 26, 212, 84A; W.H.M.M. 150757, 150796; K.B. 326.
Aitchison says the flowers of the mallow, called Gul-i-khatmi,
are collected in northeastern Iran, and exported for medicinal pur-
poses. Khabazi is the Arabic name 9f the fruits imported into India
from Iran. In the samples from Tehran both flowers and fruits of
PLANTS AND DRUGS OF IRAN AND IRAQ 139
the above species of mallow occur, although Panirak ("little cheeses")
refers only to the rounded fruits. Khatmi or Khitmi is usually
applied to the larger plants belonging to a species of Althaea. The
mallows have mucilaginous and cooling properties, and are given
for coughs. Mixed with violet flowers, Nymphaea alba L., jujube,
sebestan, and Alhagi camelorum Fisch., mallow is sometimes pre-
scribed as a purgative (H.F.).
Matricaria Chamomilla L. (Compositae)
** y. k
Babunah, Tukhm-i-babunah (Teh.); Babunaj (Pers.); Baibun
(Mosul) ; camomile flowers.
Field 142, 202; W.H.M.M. 150732, 150904.
Formerly the camomile flowers met with in the bazaars were all
obtained from northern India and Iran, and were the flowers of the
above plant, named after the village of Babunah in Arabia where it
was particularly abundant. Other fragrant composites occasionally
make their appearance. The camomiles sold in the bazaars of Iraq
consist of flowers of M. aurea L. (G.). Post identifies those in
Syria with Achillea fragrantissima Forsk. (see Anthemis). We have
received from Tehran a drug under the name of "Mukhlisah"
(Maglah), which is Matricaria (?decipiens~). Camomiles are carmina-
tive, stimulant, and febrifuge. Camomile tea prepared from the
daisies is given to relieve intercostal neuralgia. An infusion of the
drug is prescribed for dysentery (H.F.).
Medicago sativa L. (Leguminosae)
Qatt, Jatt (Ar.); Winjah, Yunjah (Kurd.); Aspust (Bal.);
Spistha (Afg.); lucern or alfalfa.
Field 29 (Jaffa Lucerna), 62 (Iraq).
Alfalfa is a native of western temperate Asia. It is extensively
cultivated in Khotan, and is largely grown in many parts of India.
There are at least two varieties; the Kandahar, and the Irani or
Arabian. The latter, doubtless of Iraqi origin, is generally free from
dodder and for this reason the seed was exported annually before the
World War from Basra to South Africa (G.). The seeds are oval
or rounded, 2 mm. long, brown, white, or greenish in color. They
are used as a cooling poultice for boils (H.F.).
140 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. IX
Melia Azedarach L. (Meliaceae)
Sinjad-i-talkh (Teh., Isf.); Mab-ul-dan (Ar.); Bakayan (Hind.);
China tree fruits.
Field 443; W.H.M.M. 150840.
The China tree or Persian lilac was probably introduced into the
southern parts of India by the Mohammedans, and various parts of
the tree have long been used in medicine by the Arabs and Persians.
The fruits are called Sinjad-i-talkh or bitter sinjad to distinguish
them from sinjad, the fruit of the oleaster (Elaeagnus angustifolia
L.). The berries are oblong or rounded, 12 mm. in length, with
smooth, wrinkled, reddish brown skin, a pulpy, bitter flesh, and hard,
five-grooved stone. The fruits are given for fevers. The stones are
worn as a necklace to avert contagious diseases.
Mentha sylvestris L. (Labiatae)
Punah (Teh.); Gul-i-punah (Isf.); Pudina (Hind.); leaves of
Field 256, 412; W.H.M.M. 150811.
The wild mint is indigenous to the temperate western Hima-
layan region and to Iran. The general name for mint, best known
in the East, is Fudanaj, the Arabic form of the Persian word, Pudina.
The author of the "Makhzan-el-Adwiya" describes three kinds of
Fudanaj : the wild, mountain, and water mint. Mountain mint has
hoary leaves, but the specimens from Tehran, although fragrant,
are too imperfect to name specifically. Different kinds of mint are
cultivated in gardens and are used as domestic remedies on account
of their pleasant odor and stimulant and carminative properties.
Mint leaves are prescribed for waterbrash or pyrosis; they
are also prepared like tea for chills, rheumatism, and dysentery
Merendera persica Boiss. (Liliaceae)
-Xi O Ax < jl>0*J.
Surinjan-i-sufrah shudah (Teh.); the corms.
Ph. Pers.; Boiss. 5: 167; Schl.; Ait.; Ph. Ind. 3: 496.
W.H.M.M. 150870; K.B. 326.
PLANTS AND DRUGS OF IRAN AND IRAQ 141
This plant, allied to Colchicum, occurs in North Iran, Afghanistan,
the juniper tracts of Baluchistan, and in the Punjab. Aitchison
found this plant common all over the Badghis and Khorasan. The
conns are collected as a medicine and exported from Meshed through
Iran via the Persian Gulf to India. The drug is one of the forms of
the ancient Hermodactyl. It is probably the Surinjan-i-shirin or
sweet Surinjan, a medicine used by Mohammedans in India. The
root from Hamadan is broken into pieces showing a white, starchy
fracture with no perceptible taste or smell. The drug is said
to have the same action as the bitter Surinjan (Colchicum spp.) as a
remedy for rheumatism.
Mirabilis Jalapa L. (Nyctaginaceae)
^Le JV jp*7
Tukhm-i-laTabbas (Teh.); Gul-i-abbasa (Pers.); fruits of the
marvel of Peru.
The marvel of Peru or four-o'clock is a plant of tropical America.
It is named Mirabilis, or wonderful, on account of the variegated
colors of the flowers, and Jalapa, as it was formerly supposed to be
the true jalap plant. The fruits are oval or vase-shaped, 8 by 5
mm., dark reddish brown, five-ribbed, and papillate, containing a
white, starchy seed. Little is known about its medicinal action,
but the fruits have been said to be used in adulterating black pepper.
Morus nigra L. (Moraceae)
O V Vi
The fruits: Tut-i-kushk (Teh.).
The root: Rlshah-shah-tut (Teh.).
The tree: Shah-tut, "royal mulberry" (Pers.).
Field 46A, 269, 402; K.B. 327.
The black or grafted mulberry is cultivated in Iran and Baluchis-
tan, principally for its fruit; the white mulberry (M. alba), for seri-
culture. They both yield fruit which in season is sold in the bazaars
and met with in nearly every household (Ait.). When carefully
dried, the fruits are called Tut-i-dham, and supply a wholesome and
nutritious article of diet during winter.
The other drug of the mulberry tree from Tehran consists of the
bark of the root, reddish colored externally, with strong, silky white
liber cells. It is used for dysmenorrhea.
142 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. IX
Myristica fragrans Houtt. (Myristicaceae)
Jauz-i-buya, "fragrant nut" (Teh., AT.); Bazbaz (Pers.); Jaephal
(Hind.); nutmeg and mace.
Field 147; W.H.M.M. 150851.
The well-known seeds of the nutmeg are used all over India and
Iran as a spice and for medicinal purposes.
Mace, the aril or testa, called Gul-i-jauz or "flower of the nut-
meg," is sold and employed for the same purpose as the kernel.
Myrtus communis L. (Myrtaceae)
Tukhm-i-murd (Teh.); Hab-el-aas (Ar.); Uurd (Abu Mansur);
Murd-i-sabzfBarg-i-murd (Teh.); leaves of the myrtle.
Field 24; W.H.M.M. 150814, 150827.
Myrtle berries are black, pea-shaped, aromatic, and slightly
sweet; each fruit contains several white, hard, kidney-shaped seeds.
The leaves are small, lanceolate, and dotted with glands, emitting
an agreeable odor when bruised. All parts of the myrtle contain a
volatile oil to which the virtues of the plant are due. The plant is
stimulant and astringent, and the volatile oil is antiseptic, parasiti-
cide, and rubefacient. It is applied hot as a poultice for boils (H.F.).
Nannorrhops Ritchieana Wendl. (Palmae)
Kakil-i-zard (Teh.); Khove, Khu (Afg.); fiber of the dwarf palm.
The soft fiber or tomentum, very like camel's hair, from the
petioles of this palm is used as tinder and for dressing wounds.
Khu is the name in Afghanistan for tinder obtained from any source
and used in lighting pipes and fires.
Nardostachys Jatamansi DC. (Valerianaceae)
i_ -r* ' <_}-.JL>'
Sumbul-i-latif, Sumbulu'1-tib (Teh., Isf.); Sumbul-jibali (Ar.);
Jata-masi (Sans., Hind.); Balchar (Afg.); Bekh-i-sumbul (Pers.);
musk root, Indian spikenard.
PLANTS AND DRUGS OF IRAN AND IRAQ 143
Field 3 (Isf.), 423; W.H.M.M. 150745.
The above plant, growing in the alpine Himalayas, yields the
Nardus root or spikenard of the ancients. The rhizome is short,
thick, and dark gray, crowned by a bundle of strong fibers called by
the natives "Devil's hair." The odor resembles valerian, and yields
about 1 per cent of volatile oil containing valerianic acid. The
physiological action is similar to that of valerian root, and the drug
is administered for nervous disorders. Prepared like tea it is given
for heart diseases (H.F.).
Nepeta micrantha Bunge and N. ispahanica Boiss. (Labiatae)
Zufa, Zuna (Teh.); Zufah-i-yabis (Ar.); the flowering herb.
Boiss. 4: 166; Achundow; Ph. Ind. 3: 116.
Field 23; W.H.M.M. 150733; K.B. 327.
Zufah is a fragrant plant used since primitive times as a carmina-
tive in the East. It has often been referred to as hyssop, but recent
examinations have shown it to be Nepeta. Dymock found the Zufah
of Sind to be N. ciliaris Benth., while the plant of that name in
Baluchistan is N. bracteata Benth. Two specimens from Tehran
consist of the fruiting calyx, flowers, and seeds. The calyx is erect,
green, with purplish, acute teeth. The seeds are oblong, brown, 1
mm. in length, with a white, V-shaped scar at the end. They are
mucilaginous when placed in water and are given for influenza and
catarrh. As an aromatic mint a cold infusion is prescribed for pain
in the chest (H.F.).
Nicotiana Tabacum L. and N. rustica L. (Solanaceae)
Tutun (Iraq); Tambaku, Tumaku; N. rustica= Turkomani tam-
baku (Afg.); tobacco leaves.
Field 89 (Iraq); 18, 23.
Tobacco is cultivated in northeastern Iran for local consumption
as well as for local trade. It is an expensive crop there, as the fields
must be heavily manured and require careful irrigation. The leaf
is frequently treated with gur or crude sugar to moisten and add
weight to the leaf. Beside being smoked, it is extensively used as
an errhine or snuff (Nashwar). This is sometimes mixed with pow-
dered ashes ofEphedra pachyclada Boiss., Huma (Gnetaceae) to render
it more pungent. Two samples of snuff are noticed in the collection:
144 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. IX
Thebba (253 Iraq). Snuff, tobacco powder soaked in 'Araq.
Bernooty (234 Iraq). Snuff, tobacco powder perfumed with
Nigella sativa Sibth. (Ranunculaceae)
Tukhm-i-siyah, Siyah-danan, Siyah-tukhmah (Teh.); Hab-es-
souda (Ar., Egy., Iraq); Kala jira, Mugrila (Hind.); false or black
Boiss. 1:68; Ph. Ind. 1:28.
Field 42; 56A; 7, 21 (Iraq); W.H.M.M. 150906; K.B. 327.
This is an annual herb, sometimes called nutmeg flower or fennel
flower, cultivated in Egypt, Syria, and Iran. According to Bird-
wood, the seeds are the black cumin of the Bible, the melanthion of
Dioscorides, and the gith of Pliny. They are black, triangular, 3
mm. long, the testa rough- wrinkled, with a white, oily kernel within.
When crushed they have a pleasant odor of lemon. The seeds con-
tain an essential oil, a fixed oil, and a saponin-like body, and are
used extensively as a spice and medicine. The ancient Mohammedan
custom of sprinkling the seeds, like those of cumin, over the surface
of bread, still prevails in Tehran and Tabriz. There is an Arab
proverb: "In the black seed is the medicine for every disease except
death." Around Tabriz N. arvensis L. is cultivated as a potherb
and for its seeds. It is called Gara tsochorek oti, "Black bread weed"
Nymphaea alba L. (Nymphaeaceae)
Gul-i-nilufar, Nllufar-i-kirmanashahi (Teh.); Nenuphar (Ph.
Pers.) ; white water lily flowers.
Ait.; Boiss. 1: 104; Fl. Br. Ind. 1: 114; Ph. Ind. 1: 70.
Field 10, 207; W.H.M.M. 150781, 150858; K.B. 328.
These are the flowers, stalks, and leaves of the white water lily,
found in ponds throughout Europe and Siberia. Nilufar is a name
also applied to flowers of other water lilies, and sometimes to species
of Ipomoea, which have blue flowers. Kamal, the flowers of a
Nymphaea, is sold in drug shops in India, and occasionally the flow-
ers of the sacred or Egyptian lotus (Nelumbium speciosum L.) are
used medicinally throughout China. The flowers have cooling and
astringent properties, and are administered locally, especially to
PLANTS AND DRUGS OF IRAN AND IRAQ 145
children, for fevers and chest troubles (C.). For this purpose the
flowers are often mixed with Adiantum Capillus-Veneris L., jujube,
violet flowers, oxtongue, and sugar (H.F.).
Ochrocarpus longifolius Benth. & Hook. (Guttiferae)
Nur-mus, Normush (Ham.); Tambra (red) nagkeshur (Pers.);
the flower buds.
Fl. Br. Ind. 1: 270; Ph. Ind. 1: 172.
This tree, called cobra saffron, grows in the western part of the
peninsula of India from Canara to the Concan. The flower buds
come principally from Rajapur and the Deccan. The reddish
brown, globular buds, like cloves, are astringent, and are used for
dyeing silk. In Iran, where they seem recently to have been intro-
duced, they are used as an aromatic tonic.
Ocimum Basilicum L. (Labiatae)
Tukhm-i-raihan (Ham., Teh.); Ruhan (Kurd.); Takmeria
(Bom.); Semen Basilici (Old Herbals); Alfabaca (Port.); sweet
Ait.; Boiss. 4: 534; Fl. Br. Ind. 4; Ph. Ind. 3: 83.
Field 84A; W.H.M.M. 150830; K.B. 728.
The sweet, Roman, or garden basil is a native of India and Iran,
and is distributed in Africa and Malaya. Raihan is the Arabic
name for "the herb," and the plant is a potherb much used for its
mint-like aroma. The "seeds," long known in medicine, are said to
be the Badranj of Avicenna. Large quantities are imported into
India from Iran. The nutlets or "seeds" are blackish, oblong, 2 to
2.5 mm. long, broad, punctulate, slightly arched, with a white
umbilicus at the narrow end. When placed in water, they imme-
diately become coated with a semi-opaque mucilage. Schlimmer
remarks that the seeds are eaten with bread and cheese. The seeds
are prescribed as a cold infusion for influenza (H.F.).
Ocimum canum Sims (Labiatae)
Tukhm-i-sharbati (Ham., Teh.); Tukhm-chirbati, Reyhane
Kouhi, Badroudge ibieze (Schl.) ; white basil.
146 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. IX
Field 194; W.H.M.M. 150774; K.B. 328.
Schlimmer remarks that Shiraz supplies Iran with these seeds
and adds that they are an indispensable ingredient in iced sherbet
(sorbets a la glace). The seeds, or nutlets, are black, punctulate,
oblong or ellipsoid, 2 by 1 mm., arched on one side, with a bifurcate
line on the other. They are smaller than those of the sweet basil,
with a less prominent, white umbilicus, but, like them, they become
coated with opalescent mucilage when placed in water. The seeds
are given locally for lung and chest complaints and as a heart tonic.
Olea europea L. (Oleaceae)
Cultivated for its fruits and for the extraction of oil, the olive
tree provides an important article of diet and medicinal remedy.
Leaves are sometimes prepared as a decoction for coughs (H.F.).
Onosma echioides L. (Boraginaceae)
Rishah havah-i-chubah (Ham.); Havah-i-chubah (Teh.); Ratan-
jot (Hind.); Indian alkanet root.
Achundow; Schl.; Boiss. 4: 181; Fl. Br. Ind. 4: 178; I.H.B.; Ph.
Ind. 2: 54.
Field 165; W.H.M.M. 150718; K.B. 329.
This plant, growing in Afghanistan and Siberia, affords a root
which is substituted for European alkanet (Anchusa, tinctoria),
from Al-kanna of the Arabs, employed as a dye and medicine in
early times. The root of the allied species, 0. Hookeri Clarke, is
called Ranj-i-badshah, "King's dye." The tapering root has a
purplish red color, and the cortical portion easily separates in flakes.
It imparts its color to oils and spirits, and is used in coloring medicinal
preparations. In Iran the root is powdered and given to horses for
coughs and as a condition powder.
Orchis latifolia L. (Orchidaceae)
Sa'lab (Teh.); Salab-misri (Ar.); Punjah-i-salaba; Oriental salep.
Field 229; W.H.M.M. 150908.
Palmate or hand-shaped tubers of orchids are considered the best
for medicinal purposes. They are deprived of their epidermis by
PLANTS AND DRUGS OF IRAN AND IRAQ 147
scalding in water and then dried. They are hard, horny, whitish,
opaque or translucent, branching tubers, mucilaginous when placed
in water. A gruel made of these roots is esteemed as a nervine tonic,
demulcent, and nutritive. As an infusion it is given to relieve
Oryza sativa L. (Gramineae)
Birinj-i-sadri, Berij sadri Gilan (Teh.); Timan (Iraq); Ruzz
(Ar.); Shilib, Pirinj (Turk.); Chaltuk (Kurd.); rice grain.
Field 58, 72; 15, 18, 20, 34 (Iraq).
"Rice is cultivated as a summer crop over immense areas, espe-
cially in the southern marshes, also in the valleys of Kurdistan and
on the flow canals of certain regions in lower Iraq" (G.). There are
three main types of the crop represented in the above specimens
from Iraq: (1) Harfi or early-sown, (2) Afli or late-sown, and (3)
Shittal or transplanted.
Timan is the hulled rice of Iraq. The two samples from Tehran
are of fine, white, table rice.
Panicum miliaceum L. (Gramineae)
Arzan (Pers.); Dukhn (Iraq); China (Hind., Sans.); millet grain.
Field 57, 106A; 22, 80 (Iraq).
Common millet is cultivated as a summer crop in Iraq, especially
along the Shatt-al-Hai. The grain can be cooked and eaten whole or
made into bread. It is commonly used in the form of porridge. The
green plant is an excellent fodder for animals. The seeds provide
feed for chickens (H.F.).
Papaver somniferum L. (Papaveraceae)
Kavl-a-kuknar, Post-a-kuknar (Pers., Afg.); poppy heads.
Tukhm-i-khash khash; Tukhm-i-shaga'ig (Ham.); Kishkash
(Ar.) ; poppy seeds.
Ait.; Post; Ph. Ind. 1:73.
Field 48, 64, 81A, 82A, 185; W.H.M.M. 150835, 150911; K.B. 329.
148 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. IX
Opium is known locally as Afyun, but the cultivation of the
opium poppy is prohibited in Iraq. The capsules, some of them
scarified, are sold in the bazaars, but their narcotic effects are less
powerful and more uncertain than those of opium. The seeds con-
tain 50 per cent of drying oil, which is sometimes called Roghan-i-
khash khash. The seeds, often erroneously supposed to be poisonous
because they are contained in the opium-yielding capsule, are whole-
some and nutritious, and are eaten chiefly in sweetmeats. The
seeds are given to relieve epistaxis; an oil derived from them is
employed in making soap. The fruits mixed with Malva sylvestris
L. var. mauritiana Boiss. and Linum usitatissimum L. form a paste
for application to boils (H.F.).
Parmelia kamtschdalis Esch. A lichen. SeeRoccellaMontagneiBel.
Peganum Harmala L. (Rutaceae)
Tukhm-i-isfand, Sipand (Teh.); Harmal, Harmal rutbah (Ar.,
Iraq); Aspand (Kurd.); Uzarih (Turk.); the Syrian rue.
Achundow; SchL; Post; Boiss. 1: 917; Fl. Br. Ind. 1: 486; Ph.
Ind. 1: 75; Weisner 44.
Field 46; 4, 26, 27, 119 (Iraq); W.H.M.M. 150850; K.B. 329.
The mountain rue is a plant of Iran, Arabia, Syria, North Africa,
and southern Europe. The plant and seeds were used medicinally
by the Greeks and Romans, and were noted in European herbals in
the 17th century. The seeds are exported from Iran into India,
where the plant was originally introduced by Mohammedans. The
seeds are dull gray, 2 mm. long, angular, having a bitter taste, and,
when crushed, a heavy, narcotic odor. The active principle resides
in the alkaloids, harmaline and harmine. The custom prevails in
Iran and Iraq of sprinkling the seeds on burning coals at marriages
to avert the malignant influence of the Evil Eye; the smoke from the
burning seeds is said to drive away epidemics. The seeds are reputed
to be an alterative and purifying medicine, and are supposed to
stimulate the sexual system.
Peucedanum graveolens Benth. & Hook. (Anethum graveolens L.)
Tukhm-i-shivid (Teh.); Shivit (Isf.); Shabbit (Ar.); Sawa,
Soyah (Hind.); Habbat Halwah (Iraq); Anitum (Yunani); dill.
PLANTS AND DRUGS OF IRAN AND IRAQ 149
Field 69, 409; W.H.M.M. 150847; K.B. 303.
The well-known dill is a tall, annual or biennial herb, with a
strong, aromatic odor, finely dissected leaves, and umbels of yellow
flowers. Dill fruits are sold in the bazaars and used as a condiment
and carminative. On distillation they yield an oil used in medicine
for the preparation of dill water. The plant is often confused with
fennel and the fruit with caraway seed; hence the name Karawyah,
sometimes used. In Iran dill serves as a potherb; the leaves are
cooked with rice as a condiment to restore lost appetite.
Phaseolus radiatus L. (Leguminosae)
Mash (Iraq, Pers.); Urd or Urid (Ind.); Masha (Sans.); the seeds.
Field 76A, 274; 5, 60 (Iraq).
Mash is cultivated as a summer pulse crop, sometimes mixed
with maize or sorghum. The green pods are eaten as a vegetable,
and the plant is used as fodder or green manure. The small, green,
oblong beans are cooked and eaten, made into biscuits, cakes, and
sweetmeats. In Afghanistan this pulse is so much esteemed that it
is called Mash-i-maha, "the king of peas."
Phaseolus vulgaris L. (Leguminosae)
Fasuliyah (Iraq); Lubia, Lubia-kermiz (red) (Teh.); Razmah
(Kash.); French bean; the seeds.
Field 69, 70, 77A, 75 (Iraq).
The French or kidney bean is grown as a vegetable or a pulse in
kitchen gardens. The pods can be eaten green and the ripe seeds
dried as haricot beans, or white soup beans.
The beans are ovate, oblong, 12 to 14 by 6 to 8 mm., white, red,
or brown, splashed with black streaks, the hilum on the inner side.
Phoenix dactylifera L. (Palmae)
Tamr (ripe fruit), Rutab (half ripe), Khalal (unripe), Nakhli
(male tree), Khurma; the date palm, date.
Date gardens are found on both sides of the Euphrates from
An Nasiriya to Basra. From Nahr Umr down the Shatt-al-Arab
to Fao is the largest date-growing district in the world. There are
150 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. IX
date gardens on both banks which vary in width from a few hundred
yards to five miles. The date is the most important crop in Iraq (G.).
The best variety of Iraq dates is grown in the Suq district. The
finest fruit is produced when the tree is between twelve and forty
years old. Over a hundred varieties are known, but in Iraq they
may be divided into two classes: (a) those used chiefly for trade;
(6) those used for local consumption.
1. Halawi 1. Mishi
2. Khadrawi 2. Gen tar
3. Sa'ir 3. Hasawi
4. Dairi 4. Khasib
5. Za'adi 5. Lihur
6. Digal 6. Barhi
Of these 60 per cent are of the Sa'ir variety. The Halawi are
popular in America, the Khadrawi sell in Europe while India and
Iran are content with the Sa'ir varieties. The numerous uses of
the date palm are proverbial. The fruit yields a syrup and is used
in making the local spirit, 'araq (H.F.).
Phyllanthus Emblica L. (Euphorbiaceae)
Amulah-i-suftah (Teh.) ; Amulah-mugashshar (Isf.); Amlaj (Ar.);
Aola amla (Hind.); Kurk amla = dried fruit, Amla morabba = pre-
served fruit, in Turkestan; emblic myrobalans.
Field 16 (Isf.); W.H.M.M. 150871.
This tree grows throughout tropical India, and is valued for its
fruits which, when dried, constitute the emblic myrobalans of
commerce. As met with in the shops, the drug occurs in broken
sections of a fruit, smaller than a walnut, with dried pulp and hard,
woody endocarp. The pulp is very acid and contains much tannin.
The fruit is astringent, stomachic, and refrigerant; mixed with grape
juice and honey it is a favorite drink for fever and diarrhea.
Physalis Alkekengi L. (Solanaceae)
Kakanj (Isf., Teh.); Gul-i-kakan j ; Alkikenji (Ar.); clammy
Achundow; Boiss. 4: 287; Post; Ait.; Schl.; Ph. Pers.; Ph. Ind.
Field 12 (Isf.), 162; W.H.M.M. 150721; K.B. 330.
PLANTS AND DRUGS OF IRAN AND IRAQ 151
This is a plant of Arabia, Syria, Iran, and Baluchistan, dis-
tributed also in Europe. The berries are like dried cherries, but full
of pulp, in which are embedded many reniform, yellowish seeds.
As sold in the bazaars, broken fragments of the red, accrescent calyces
are mixed with the drug. The fruits are said by Schlimmer to be
hydragogue and vermifuge. Achundow indicates their use in certain
female complaints. Locally they are regarded as a remedy for
syphilis, and are supposed to be intoxicating when taken in sufficient
Pimpinella Anisum L. (Umbelliferae)
Anisun, Badian-i-rumi (Teh.); Antchibun, a corruption of
Anisum (Tab.); Erva dos, from Portuguese Herba doce (Dymock);
Ait.; Boiss. 2: 866; Schl.; Ph. Ind. 1: 131.
Field 25; 35A; 10 (Iraq); W.H.M.M. 150768; K.B. 330.
Aniseed is cultivated largely in the U.S.S.R., as well as in Iran,
for its seed, which is employed as a condiment and medicine. The
fruit is often confounded with fennel, as the Arabic name Badian
in some districts is applied to aniseed and in others to fennel. Ani-
seed has been introduced into India from Iran, whence the supply
for the Bombay market still comes. It is mainly a Mohammedan
medicine and is given in cough mixtures, and as a flavoring agent.
Arak-badiani or anise water, prepared by distillation, is mentioned
by Schlimmer, and local spirit is still flavored with it. The active
principle resides in an essential oil consisting of 80 to 90 per cent of
solid anethol, which separates slightly below ordinary temperatures,
and anisic methyl charvicol.
Piper Cubeba L. (Piperaceae)
Kababah-i-chlm (Teh., Isf.); Kabab-chini (Hind.); cubeb pepper.
Field 25, 440; W.H.M.M. 150880.
Cubeb or tailed pepper is imported from Malaya and Java;
it was formerly supposed to have come from China. The commercial
drug consists of nearly globular fruits measuring about 4 mm. in
diameter, of grayish brown or black, reticulately wrinkled on the
surface, and abruptly prolonged at the base into a slender stalk or
"tail." Within the pericarp is a single seed. Cubebs exhale, when
152 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. IX
crushed, a spicy odor, and possess a strong, spicy, and bitter taste.
They have a stimulant and antiseptic action on the mucous mem-
brane of the genito-urinary organs, and are also a diuretic.
Pistacia integerrima Stew. (Anacardiaceae)
Chahar tankhush (Teh.); Chatlanguch (Ham.); Kharshnai
W.H.M.M. 150839; K.B. 331.
This is the northwestern Himalayan form of the turpentine
tree, called also the false or donkey mastich. The small drupes are
broader than long, 5 by 6 mm., glabrous, rugose, gray with a bony
stone. They have a marked terebinthinate odor, and are used
locally to impart flavor to milk.
Field 201; W.H.M.M. 150706.
Under the name of Jift or Juft, the broken shells of the galls of
the turpentine tree are sold in Tehran. Being very astringent, they
are used for tanning; mixed with lime, they remove hair from skins.
Pistacia Khinjuk Stocks. (Anacardiaceae)
Habbu'l ghar (Isf.); Habul-khazra (Teh.); Hebbul-beneh (Ar.);
Field 449; 116 (Iraq); K.B. 331.
Subz-i-gulanj (Teh.) ; Buzghanj (Ham., Isf.); Gul-i-pisteh (Bom.);
Afs-el-batum (Tri.) ; the galls.
Ait.; Boiss. 2: 6; I.H.B.; Ph. Ind. 1: 377.
Field 422; W.H.M.M. 150878; K.B. 331.
This tree is common in Iran, Baluchistan, and Afghanistan, and
has been described under different species names. The tree yields
a resin-like material, and the nuts, which are eaten, afford a sweet
oil; the leaves and galls are employed for tanning. The small,
seed-like fruits are oval in shape, 6 mm. long, reddish brown in color,
with an acid taste and terebinthinate odor. The fruits are eaten
and are said to be good for debility. Prepared like tea, they relieve
stomach pains (H.F.).
PLANTS AND DRUGS OF IRAN AND IRAQ 153
The galls are formed by Pemphigus utricularius Pass, (figured
in "Les Zoocecidies des Plantes d'Afrique, d'Asie et d'0ce"anie,"
by C. Houard, 1923, figs. 1010-1012, p. 471, under P. atlantica No.
1731). They contain about 40 per cent of gallotannic acid, are ovoid,
larger than peas, somewhat fig-shaped, pink in color, turning gray;
the wall is thin, brittle, and rugose on the outside, smooth within and
translucent. The taste is astringent and slightly terebinthinate.
In Persian and Arabic works on medicine the galls are described as
cold, dry, and astringent. Mixed with Indian spikenard they are
administered to relieve stomach pains (H.F.).
Pistacia Terebinthus L. (Anacardiaceae)
Sagiz-i-safid (Teh.); Sages (Stapf); Zunghari, Sukhur; the oleo-
resin and leaves.
Field 129; W.H.M.M. 150894.
The turpentine tree grows freely near Banni in the hills of Sherag.
Its oleo-resin is a thick, tenacious, white, opaque mass, gradually
taking the shape of the bottle in which it is placed; it softens on
warming and has a pleasant terebinthinate odor. It is used in Tehran
as a chewing gum, and is similar to the Chian turpentine which was
recommended about fifty years ago as a remedy for cancer. The
leaves are astringent and are used for dyeing.
Pistacia vera L. (Anacardiaceae)
Pistah (Teh.); pistachio nuts in shells.
Field 265; 49A, 50A, 51A; 124 (Iraq).
Pust-i-pistah (Teh.); husks of the fruits.
The fruit of the pistachio nut is the size of an olive; its husk is
reddish and astringent, its odor terebinthinate. Within the fruit
is a woody shell or nut, brownish white in color, with hard, horny,
and polished texture and ovoid shape. The kernel or almond is
pale green, and covered with a thin, brittle, brown skin, easily
removed by scratching. The taste is sweet, oily, and balsamic.
The outer husk of the fruit (Pust-i-pistah) is used as an infusion for
dysentery and is imported into Bombay from Iran as a dyeing and
154 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. IX
The fruits of various species of Pistacia have been used as food.
Laufer in "Sino-Iranica" remarks that these indigenous trees from
ancient times have occupied a prominent place in the life of the
Persians. The youth of Persia were taught to subsist on terebinths,
and "terebinth eaters" became a nickname. The seeds of the
pistachio tree are probably the terebinths referred to, but other
species and varieties also afford edible fruits. In Baluchistan the
fruits of the Khinjuk tree, called "Shahna," are dried and made into
flour and eaten by the poor.
Plantago major L. (Plantaginaceae)
Barhang (Teh.); Tukhm-i-barhang (Ham.); Bizr dinbil (Iraq);
Bar-i-tang (Bal.); seeds of greater plantain.
Achundow; Ait.; Schl.; Boiss. 4: 878; Post 668; Ph. Ind. 3: 128;
Field 6; W.H.M.M. 150913; K.B. 331.
Greater plantain is widely distributed in temperate countries,
and the seeds of this and other species are largely employed in
medicine in the East. In Tabriz this plant is called in Turki Bizousha
dishi, the female kind; P. lanceolata L. is distinguished as Bizousha
erkek, the male kind. The seeds are small, oval, 1 mm. long, smooth,
and brown. They throw off a transparent, mucilaginous coating
when placed in water, on account of which the seeds have a reputa-
tion in treatment for affections of the bowels and as a remedy for
dysentery. The colloquial name for the seeds in Iraq means "for
making poultices for boils." The seeds of P. Loefflingii L. are called
in Tabriz Kami Yarikh, meaning "healing of the stomach" (Gilliat-
Plantago ovata Forsk. (Plantaginaceae)
Isparzah (Teh.); Asbaghul, Ispaghul (Pers.); Lesan ul Lamal
(Ar.); Psylli semina (Ph. Pers.); Khar-danick (Bal.); spogul seeds.
Achundow; Schl.; Boiss. 4: 855; I.H.B.; Ph. Ind. 3: 126; B.P.
Field 7; W.H.M.M. 150707; K.B. 332.
This species of plantain is a native of Iran, Baluchistan, and
northern India. Stocks observed that it was grown especially in
Sind for its mucilaginous seeds, which from the time of Dioscorides
PLANTS AND DRUGS OF IRAN AND IRAQ 155
have been a well-known medicine in the East. Large quantities are
imported into Bombay from Iran. The seeds are light in color, boat-
shaped, pointed at both ends, 2 mm. in length, translucent, with a
pinkish tinge, and a brown streak on the convex side; the concavity
is covered with a thin, white membrane. They become coated with
mucilage when placed in water. In Baluchistan the seeds of P.
ciliata Desf. are called Isbaghol and are used as a cure for dysentery
As an infusion the seeds are given for gonorrhea and any disease
in which a cooling effect is desired; they are also used as a diuretic
Plumbago rosea L. (Plumbaginaceae)
Shitaraj, Rishah tamesh (Teh.); Chitrak (Hind.); Chitra
(Bom.); Chitraka (Sans.); leadwort root.
W.H.M.M. 150805; K.B. 332.
There are two kinds of plumbago roots known in the East,
Indian and Syrian. The root from Tehran is dark reddish brown,
3 mm. in diameter, longitudinally striated, slightly twisted, the wood
in wedge-shaped bundles. The taste is acrid and biting. The juice
of this plant is used by beggars to raise ulcers on their bodies so as to
excite pity. Like other species of the genus, it is an active blistering
agent. In India it is considered a powerful sudorific.
The following are regarded in Iran as poisonous drugs:
Aristolochia longa .............. Root ..................... Tehran
Croton Tiglium ................ Seeds ..................... Hamadan
Datura Stramonium ............ Seeds ..... . ............... Hamadan
Datura Stramonium ........... Leaves .................... Tehran
Datura Stramonium ............ Leaves .................... Hamadan
Doronicum Pardalianches ....... Root ..................... Hamadan
Gypsophila paniculata .......... Root ..................... Hamadan
Hyoscyamus reticulatus ......... Seeds ............ '. ........ Hamadan
Ipomoea hederacea ............. Seeds . . ................... Hamadan
Iris spuria .................... Rhizome .................. Hamadan
Onosma echioides ............... Root ..................... Hamadan
Ricinus communis .............. Seeds ..................... Hamadan
Strychnos Nux-vomica .......... Seeds ..................... Tehran
Veratrum album L .............. Rhizome .................. Hamadan
Withania somnifera ............ Root ..................... Hamadan
156 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. IX
Polygonum Bistorta L. (Polygonaceae)
Rlshah-i-anjabar (Teh.); Anjabar-i-rumi (Pers.); Bikh-anjubaz
(Punj.); bistort root.
Ait.; Post; Schl.; Boiss. 4: 1027; Ph. Ind. 3: 150.
Field 192; W.H.M.M. 150832; K.B. 333.
The rhizome sent under this name is nearly cylindrical, about 12
mm. thick, contorted, with thin rootlets below and scars above,
reddish brown and wrinkled on the outside, with a ring of vascular
bundles between the center and circumference. The root contains
tannin and elongated grains of starch. Schlimmer states that bistort
root comes to Iran from the U.S.S.R., via Astrakhan; the sample
from Tehran came from Kermanshah. Dymock informs us that
P. vivipara is a substitute for bistort in the Punjab. The root, being
very astringent, is prescribed in cases of diarrhea and dysentery.
In Kashmir the roots of P. amplexicaule Don, called Mansaril,
are employed as a dye.
Polypodium vulgare L. (Polypodiaceae)
Bas-fayij, "many footed" (Teh.); Basfaij (Ind. bazaars); poly-
Field 175; W.H.M.M. 150897.
The rhizome of the common polypody is dark brown and wiry,
the surface is rugose and longitudinally fissured, presenting several
horn-like tubercles or scaly projections, the remains of the stipes of
the fronds. It is oval in outline, with an interior of dark or brownish
red and resinous. The aroma is disagreeable and the taste acrid.
This is a well-known drug described by Achundow and Schlimmer.
The root is aperient, alterative, and deobstruent, locally used for
intestinal indigestion and rheumatic pains, and as a purgative for
bilious disorders. It is also given mixed with Zataria multiflora
Polyporus officinalis Fries (Fungi)
Gharigun (Teh.); Gharekum (Hind., Bom.); Gharikun (Ind.
bazaars) ; white agaric.
PLANTS AND DRUGS OF IRAN AND IRAQ 157
This agaric occurs on the oak and larch, and in sizes as large as a
fist or a child's head ; it is light, spongy, and friable, and is not easily
powdered. The use of this fungus in medicine is of very ancient date.
Avicenna insists upon the great efficacy of agaric as an alexipharmic.
Mohammedan physicians closely follow the Greeks in considering
that it removes all kinds of visceral obstructions and expels diseased
humors. It is also a Chinese drug. The light, white, spongy interior
is made into touchwood, spunk, or tinder, and was formerly used to
absorb blood and secretions from wounds, etc.; hence the old name
Fungus or Boletus Chirurgorum given to the plant.
Prosopis Stephaniana Kunth (Leguminosae)
Kharnuban, Kornub (Isf.); Shok (Ar.); Kunbut (Syr.); Chughak:
"humpbacked, bent," applied to the contorted pods, Tukhm-i-
jinjak (Ait.) ; the pods.
This is a loose, straggling, thorny shrub of the Caucasus, Syria,
Iran, and northern India. The pods are brown or copper-colored,
4 by 1.5 cm., galled, swollen, and contorted, containing several oval,
brown seeds separated by soft, spongy dissepiments. The pods are
eaten by sheep, but the seeds pass through undamaged and germinate
readily at the coming of the winter rains (G.). The pods and roots
of the plant are regarded as astringent and are given for dysentery.
Primus Amygdalus Stokes var. amara Baill. (Rosaceae)
Badam-i-talkh (Teh.); bitter almonds.
Field 52A, 171.
The bitter almond tree, like the sweet, is a native probably
of Iran and Asia Minor, and is indistinguishable in botanical char-
acters. In form and appearance bitter almonds closely resemble
Valencia almonds, but are usually smaller. They are employed in
confectionery and for flavoring, but as the hydrocyanic acid yielded
by them varies in quantity, they should be used with caution. An
ointment made of bitter almonds is applied to furuncles (H.F.).
Primus Armeniaca L. (Rosaceae)
The fruit: Zard alu (Pers.); Mishmish (Iraq); Khubani, with
stones removed (Hind.) ; dried apricot.
158 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. IX
The seeds: Hasta-i-zard alu.
Field 30, 39 (Iraq); 108A.
The home of this tree is in the Caucasus region. Dried apricots
are called Fating in Afghanistan, and Chuli by the Botes. Sheets of
compressed apricot pulp are sometimes sold in the market as Qamr-
ad-din. In this form the dried apricot preserves its flavor for an
indefinite period; it can be used as required after soaking in water,
when it swells into a nutritive paste like jam. This substance was
one of the rations issued to Turkish soldiers during the War (G.).
Apricot kernels, called Stigu in Afghanistan, are used as almonds.
Primus Cerasus L. (Rosaceae)
Hastah-i-albalu (Teh.); Karaz (Ar.); Kerasza (Hind.); cherry
Dam-i-albalu( Teh.) ; cherry stalks or peduncles.
Field 144; W.H.M.M. 150810, 150860.
The sour or bitter cherry is a tree of western Asia and eastern
Europe. The fruits are light brown, resembling those of the common
cherry. The seeds contain kernels having the odor of bitter almonds,
are nutritive and tonic and are used in confections. The cherry
tree and other plum trees in Iran yield a useful gum called Sumgh
alucha. Cherry stones mixed with barley awns, and cherry stems,
are given as an infusion for gonorrhea (H.F.).
Primus domestica L. var. Juliana (Rosaceae)
Aluchah (Teh.); Anjar (Iraq); Halu zhgarh (Kurd.); Alucha
Field 268, 95A, 104A.
The dried plums are black, wrinkled, ovate, 20 mm. long, with a
sweet, pleasantly acid pulp; the seed is 14 by 12 mm., the kernel has
an odor of bitter almonds. On account of their acidity they are
preferred for cooking, and are used for cleaning metal.
Prunus institia L. var. bokharensis (Rosaceae)
Alu, Alu-bokhara (Teh.) ; Bokhara plum.
PLANTS AND DRUGS OF IRAN AND IRAQ 159
The fruit is globular, sweetish, and acidulous, surface compressed
and wrinkled, color reddish or brown, with an odor like that of dates.
Inside, the fruit is an almond-like nut in a hard shell, containing a
kernel resembling sweet almonds. These plums may be used in
place of prunes in the preparation of confection of senna.
Primus Mahaleb L. (Rosaceae)
Habbu'l-ma'lab (Teh.); Hab-ul-mahaliba (Ar.); Paiwand-
e-maryam (Pers.); perfumed cherry tree fruits.
Field 103 (Iraq); W.H.M.M. 150862.
This small tree occurs in Central Asia and Europe. The drug is
found in the bazaars in two forms, the dried fruits and the kernels.
The fruits are drupes, brown and oval, 9 by 6 mm., with a wrinkled
skin, covering a fragile shell and the kernel. The kernels are light
brown in color, ovate, 6 by 4 mm., with the taste of bitter almonds.
They are used by Arabian physicians as a stomachic and for general
Pterocarpus santalinus L. (Leguminosae)
'f" j~> t^j -L^
Sandal-i-surkh, Ratiyanah (Teh.); Lal-chandan (Hind.); Ratan-
jali (Guz.) ; red sanders, red sandalwood.
Field 193, 232.
This wood is the Rakta chandana of Sanskrit writers. It comes
from southern India, where the felling of the trees is under govern-
ment control, and yields a considerable revenue. Hindus and Moham-
medans use this wood combined with white sandalwood in bathing
and religious services. The use of the red wood in powder for treat-
ing bloody fluxes must be based on the "Doctrine of Signatures." The
drug called Ratiyanah in Tehran, a remedy for dysentery, appears
to consist of chips of this wood. Red sandalwood is well known in
Europe as an ingredient in French polish.
Punica Granatum L. (Lythraceae)
Gulnar-i-farsl, Gul-i-anar (Teh.); Nar (Turk.); Gul nare-farci
(Schl.) ; Flores Punicae granati (Ph. Pers.) ; pomegranate flowers.
Achundow; Ait.; Post; I.H.B.; Fl. Br. Ind. 2: 581; Ph. Ind. 2: 45;
Boiss. 2: 736.
160 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. IX
Field 77, 157; W.H.M.M. 150738; K.B. 333.
Root bark: Rishah-i-anar (Teh.); Granati Cortex (Ph. Pers.).
Seeds: Chab roman (Bagh.).
The pomegranate is a small tree with showy, reddish flowers,
growing in subtropical countries. The flowers, rind of fruit, and
dried bark of the stem and root are medicinal. The flowers are
astringent and stomachic; the rind of the fruit is also astringent and
is used for dyeing and prescribed for dysentery; the root bark is
vermifuge and used for expelling tapeworm; the alkaloid pelletierine
is its active principle. The flowers, powdered with Nummulites sp.
and Rhus coriaria L., are applied to painful gums.
Imm-harmal is a variety with small, black fruits which are used
medicinally only (H.F.).
Pyrethrum sp. (?) (Compositae)
Katek bah (?) (Teh.).
This drug consists of a tapering root with a few undeveloped
leaves arising from the crown. The root has the characters of a
composite and the leaves resemble those of a Pyrethrum. The sample
is marked "Poison, used as an eye medicine" (H.F.).
Pyrus Cydonia L. (Rosaceae)
4* IJL* ^>a
Tukhm-i-bihdanah (Teh.); Bibi (Bal.); quince seeds.
Field 5; 53A.
The quince is a native of Central Asia, and is grown for its fruit
in most temperate countries. Seeds used in and exported from Iran
are irregularly ovoid, angular, adherent to one another by mucilage,
and covered with a membrane; the color of the testa is dark brown,
and that of the kernel yellowish white; they have the odor and taste
of bitter almonds. When roasted and salted they are called Hab-
safarjal. The seeds contain a large quantity of mucilage, which
favorably recommends them as nutritive, demulcent, and emollient
for coughing and dysentery; they are taken in the form of an infusion.
PLANTS AND DRUGS OF IRAN AND IRAQ 161
Quercus infectoria Olivier (Fagaceae)
Mazu (Isf.); Affaz (Teh.); Ajees-aafs (Ar.); Maiphala (Hind.);
galls, mad, or Dead Sea apples.
Field 45A, 447; W.H.M.M. 150783.
These galls are excrescences on the twigs of oak trees, resulting
from the deposition of eggs of Cynips gallae-tinctoriae Olivier. Oak
galls are collected in Asiatic Turkey, as well as in the province of
Aleppo, and are known commercially as "Aleppo," "Smyrna," or
"Turkey" galls. They are nearly spherical in shape, and vary from
12 to 20 mm. in diameter, bluish green externally and yellowish
within. They are hard and heavy, and bear short, bluntly pointed
projections. The galls contain from 50 to 70 per cent of gallotannic
acid, and consequently are used medicinally as a local astringent,
to be dusted on wounds. They find an extensive application techni-
cally in dyeing and tanning. In Kurdistan they are sometimes strung
as beads and hung over the cradle to ward off the Evil Eye (H.F.).
Quercus lusitanica Lam. var. tauricola (Fagaceae)
Talkak (?) (Iraq); Basra galls.
Field 102, 120 (Iraq).
These galls are formed by Cynips insana Mayr. on the above oak,
and also on Quercus infectoria. They are much larger than Aleppo
galls, dark brown, oval or subspherical, 4 by 3.5 cm., yellowish brown
within, a channel leading to the cavity in the center. They are very
astringent and rich in tannic acid.
Quercus persica Jaub. & Spach (Fagaceae)
Balut (Teh.); Glans Quercus Ballotae (Ph. Pers.); acorns.
Field 191; W.H.M.M. 150834.
This is one of the most common species of oak throughout the
forests of Kurdistan and the Rowandiz area. The acorns are oblong,
3.5 by 1.7 cm., light brown in color, glabrous, shining, and contain a
single seed. Acorns have a styptic action because of the tannin they
contain; they are used for colic pains in children, and as a gargle.
In Kurdistan acorns are sometimes eaten raw, but they are usually
roasted and the flour made into cakes (H.F.).
Quercus sp. (Fagaceae)
Giash mashi (Ham.); Kisa, Kesa; spiny galls.
162 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. IX
Pharmacog.; Connold's British Oak Galls; Houard 375; Ait.;
Ph. Ind. 3: 360.
These galls are produced by the insect Andricus lucidus Hartig.
var. orientalis Trotter (illustrated in Connold's "British Oak Galls").
This cynipid makes galls on various species of oak. The bazaar
specimens are probably brought from Asia Minor; they have long
spines which are usually broken off in the commercial samples.
They are used by tanners and are sold also as an astringent
medicine. This drug is given locally as a febrifuge (C.).
Quercus Vallonea Kotschy (Fagaceae)
Gueze elefi, Pune (Teh.) ; oak manna.
Under these names is supplied a confection or cake of sugary
substance, green with the presence of broken leaves. It is a form
of Tar-anjubin, "green honey," or Gaz-anjabin, "tamarisk honey."
Layard referred to this substance in his "Early Adventures in Persia,"
I, p. 349: "The mountainous country beyond Fellaut is thickly
wooded with the 'beloot' or oak. These trees are chiefly valuable
for the white substance called by the Bakhtyaris 'gaz' or 'gazu,'
a kind of manna. It is an article of export to all parts of Persia, and
is sold everywhere in the bazaars, and employed in the manufacture
of a sweetmeat called 'Gazenjubeen,' which is much relished and
considered very wholesome. When boiled with the leaves and
allowed to harden it forms a kind of greenish cake, not disagreeable
to the taste, but, prepared for the use of the ladies of the enderun
and to be offered to guests, it is carefully skimmed and separated,
when it becomes a white paste of very delicate flavor."
Oak manna, manna quercina, Gueza-elefi of Schlimmer, has
also been obtained from the leaves and fruits of Q. mannifera Lindl.
of Kurdistan, Q. persica Jaub. & Spach, and Q. tauricola Klotszch.
Saccharose, glucose, fructose, and mucilage have been separated
from these secretions, but no mannite.
Quisqualis indica L. (Combretaceae)
Rangan-ki-bel (Hind.); Liane vermifuge (Fr.); fruits of the
Field 82 (Iraq).
PLANTS AND DRUGS OF IRAN AND IRAQ 163
The Rangoon creeper is cultivated as an ornamental flowering
shrub in most parts of India. The fruits are oval or oblong, pointed
at either end, and sharply pentagonal. The pericarp is thin, woody,
fragile, of a mahogany color, enclosing an oily seed. The medicinal
use of the creeper originated in Mauritius and the Moluccas. The
seeds are valued as an anthelmintic; four or five seeds bruised and
mixed with honey are administered as a dose for expelling lumbrici.
Raphanus sativus L. (Cruciferae)
Tukhm-i-turubchah (Teh.); Turb (Pers.); Bazr-el-fujl (Ar.);
Tur (Kurd.); Mula, Muro (Hind.); radish seeds.
Field 37; W.H.M.M. 150921.
The well-known radish is cultivated as a vegetable throughout the
country. Its seeds, sold in the bazaars, are oblong, 3 to 4 by 2 mm.,
light reddish brown, with the testa minutely reticulated. They have
the pungent taste of mustard. The seeds are diuretic, laxative, and
Rheum palmatum L. (Polygonaceae)
Rivand-i-chini (Isf., Teh.); rhubarb root.
Field? (Isf.); 1,206.
The appearance of sticks of Chinese rhubarb in the bazaars of
Iran indicates the favor in which this medicine is held. It is
aperient, stomachic, tonic, and slightly astringent, and promotes
the action of the liver without any catharsis. In Tehran it is used as
a paste for syphilitic ulcers (H.F.).
Rheum Ribes L. (Polygonaceae)
Gul-i-livas, Tukhm-i-livas (Ham., Teh.); Livas, the Persian and
Arabic name of the plant; Riwas (Punj.); rhubarb fruits.
Barg-i-livas (Isf.); rhubarb leaves.
Boiss. 4: 1003; Ph. Ind. 3: 153.
Field 22, 400; W.H.M.M. 150885; K.B. 335.
The edible rhubarb is indigenous throughout the moister localities
at 3,000 feet and upward. It occurs in great expanses on a northern
exposure on the higher hills of Khurasan, marking the country
characteristically in the autumn with the brilliancy of its almost
164 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. IX
scarlet foliage. The fruit and root-stock of wild rhubarb are collected
and employed in medicine; the fruits were official in the "Pharmaco-
poeia Persica." A decoction of the reddish, triangular- winged fruits
is considered a more powerful purgative than that of the rootstock
(Aitchison). The fruits are used in Tehran as a vermifuge for horses,
and in Hamadan the drug is applied as a poultice for headache. The
rhubarb leaves from Isfahan are made into an infusion and used for
Rhodymenia sp. (Florideae, Rhodymeniaceae)
Lyka, Leeka (Iraq) ; Chinai-ghasa or seaweed.
This alga, obtained in northern Iran, is light brown and gelatin-
ous. A decoction is given for coughs. As a substitute for agar-agar,
it is emulcent, emollient, and alterative, and may be used as a
cultivating medium for bacteria.
Rhus coriaria L. (Anacardiaceae)
Summaq, Summaq-i-shakki bi hastah (Teh.); Tirsh (Kurd.);
Tartak (Hind.); leaves, bark, and fruits.
Achundow; Schl.; Boiss. 2:4; Post; Ait.; Ph. Ind. 1: 373.
Field 164, 272; 107 (Iraq); W.H.M.M. 150800; K.B. 335.
The sumac is a tree cultivated in Khurasan, western Afghanistan,
and throughout Central Asia. The leaves have long been used by the
Arabs, Turks, Iranis, and in Europe, for dyeing silk and tanning
leather. They contain from 15 to 35 per cent of tannin.
The fruit is exported from Iran and used by Mohammedans in
India. It is a small, sticky drupe, the size of a lentil, 5 mm.
in diameter, red or green, acid, and astringent to the taste, con-
taining one lenticular, polished, brown seed.
Mixed with Punica Granatum L., sumac is applied to relieve
painful gums. The seeds in an infusion are used to acidulate foods
Ricinus communis L. (Euphorbiaceae)
Garchak farangi (Teh.); Karchak (Ham.); Tochme Kertchec
(Schl.); Kurwa (Ar., Iraq); Bedanjir, "willow fig"; castor oil seeds.
PLANTS AND DRUGS OF IRAN AND IRAQ 165
Field 264; 4, 12, 36, 53 (Iraq) ; W.H.M.M. 150739; K.B. 335.
The castor oil plant is a native of India, but is common now
throughout tropical and subtropical countries. In Iraq and Iran
it is cultivated as a windbreak for cotton and other summer crops
and in gardens as an ornamental plant. It may attain a height of
10 meters and be a perennial tree, but in cooler climates it is either
a shrub or an annual herb. With variations of the plant there are
also varieties, large and small, of the seeds. The four samples from
Iraq were classed as follows: "Abhangi seeds" 15 by 9 mm., "ordi-
nary" 13 by 10 mm., "Indian red-stemmed" 11 by 8 mm., "Syrian
Baladi" 13 by 11 mm. The most important constituent of castor
seed is the fixed oil, which exists to the extent of about 50 per cent.
The oil is used as a lubricant, as an illuminant, and in medicine as a
safe purgative. The oil cake contains all the poisonous property
originally present in the seed, hence can not be used as a cattle food ;
it is, however, an excellent manure and fuel.
Roccella Montagnei Be"l. (Ascolichenes, Roccellaceae)
Davalah (Ham.) ; a lichen.
Field 28A; W.H.M.M. 150824; K.B. 336.
Achundow refers this drug to Muscus arboreus, and gives the
Persian names as Dawalak and Karbasu and the Arabic name as
Aschna ( Usnea sp.). The Persian name Davalah is applied to more
than one kind of lichen, since Dymock gives Parmelia kamtschadalis
Esch. as the source of this drug in the Indian bazaars (Ph. Ind. 3:
627). In the Field collection from Baghdad, No. 28A, this drug
occurs under the name of "Lihayat as-shayib." Some of the Parmelias
are used as a dye. They are gray lichens, in broken pieces, having
emollient and astringent properties, used in a bath or as a poultice.
Rosa damascena Mill. (Rosaceae)
Gul-i-surkh, "red flower" (Teh.); Ward (Ar.); flowers of red rose.
Field 42A; W.H.M.M. 150763.
The rose of Damascus is largely cultivated in western Asia. In
Turkey, Bulgaria, and the south of France this species yields attar
of rose and is the flower from which the official rose water is prepared.
The petals are slightly astringent, and are used chiefly as an
agreeable astringent or as a coloring agent. "Gulanjabin," of rose
166 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. IX
petals mixed with honey, is a confection sold in Eastern bazaars.
"Gulkhand" is a conserve made from equal parts of rose petals and
white sugar beaten together. Rose petals are added to curry as a
Rosa foetida Herm. (Rosaceae)
Gul-i-zard, "yellow flower" (Teh.); Gole zarde (Schl.).
A. Olivier ("Voyage dans 1'Empire Ottoman, 1'Egypte et la Perse,"
Paris, 1807); Boiss. 2: 671.
Field 154; W.H.M.M. 150823; K.B. 336.
The Persian yellow rose is a shrub cultivated in gardens. This
is the yellow Austrian briar in a wild state, ranging from the Crimea
and Asia Minor through Iran to Turkestan, Afghanistan, and the
Punjab to eastern Tibet. Aitchison calls it Gul-i-raman-zeba, "lovely
flower" of the Hari Rud Valley. Dried rose petals, obtained chiefly
from Iran, are sold in the bazaars in India and are prescribed for colic
Rosa hemisphaerica Herm. (Rosaceae)
Damaverah (Ham.); Dalik, Ward (Ar.); the hips.
Ph. Ind. 1: 574; Boiss. 2: 672; Post.
This rose occurs in Iran and Afghanistan, and, according to
Post, is cultivated extensively in Syria.
The drug consists of the hips of the plant. They are nearly
globular, broader than long, from 10 by 7 mm. to 13 by 8 mm.,
crowned with the remains of sepals, red, wrinkled, and covered with
short protuberances. Within are several light brown, hard, smooth
seeds, 4 mm. long, mixed with silky hairs. The fruits are hot, dry,
and astringent, and are given locally for stomach complaints.
Rubia Cordifolia L. and R. tinctorium L. (Rubiaceae)
Runas, Runiyas (Teh., Isf.); Rounace (Schl.); Fuwwah (Ar.);
Manjit (Hind.) ; madder root.
Ait.; Boiss. 3: 17; Post 224; Schl.; Ph. Ind.
Field 6 (Isf.); 39; 109 (Iraq); W.H.M.M. 150726; K.B. 336.
PLANTS AND DRUGS OF IRAN AND IRAQ 167
The madder plant is grown in hilly districts from Iran to Spain.
Aitchison says it is cultivated throughout eastern Iran and it takes
three years for the root to attain its proper size. It is grown exten-
sively in Anar-dara, Koin, and Yezd, whence the root is exported in
quantity to Herat. From Herat it is re-exported to Afghanistan,
Turkestan, and India. The root is used as a dyestuff and medicine
throughout the East. It is sold in two forms : one with the cylindrical,
red roots in lengths of 1 or 2 inches; and the other with the crushed
root made into balls ready for the dyer.
Rumex conglomerates L. and R. obtusifolius L. (Polygonaceae)
Tukhm-i-hummaz (Teh., Ham.); the fruits.
Boiss. 4: 1010; Ait.; Post; Ph. Ind. 3: 158.
Field 2, 37, 159; 123 (Iraq); W.H.M.M. 150842; K.B. 337.
The first of these widely distributed species of dock yields a
medicinal root known to the ancients as Radix Lapathi, but in Iran
and India this and other species afford medicinal fruits. Those from
Tehran belong to R. obtusifolius; they have three wings, are net-
veined, irregularly toothed, and red and green in color. These are
given as an infusion for dysentery (H.F.).
The fruits from Hamadan are from R. conglomeratus and have
shorter wings, not distinctly toothed. They are given in pyorrhea.
According to Dymock, Gul-i-hamaz, or "dock flowers," in India are
afforded by the fruits of R. vesicarius L., a plant found all over Asia.
Ruta graveolens L. (Rutaceae)
Sudab (Teh.); Sudaba (Ar.); Satari (Hind.); Peganon of Scrip-
ture; garden rue, herb of grace.
Field 170; 84 (Iraq); W.H.M.M. 150784.
This perennial herb is cultivated in southern Europe and the East.
It is about 1 m. high, with glaucous foliage, yellow flowers, and
small tricoccus capsules and black seeds. The odor is peculiar and
mint-like, and the taste acrid and bitter. In the market the drug
occurs as a mixture of broken leaves, stems, stalks, and fruits. Rue
in small doses is a tonic, digestive, and aphrodisiac. In a fresh state
it is an active irritant. Rue yields a volatile oil and a bitter, yellow
glucoside, rutin. Mixed with mast, it is applied to relieve itching
168 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. IX
Saccharum officinarum L. (Gramineae)
Shakar-i-surkh (Teh.) ; sugar cane.
This is a sample of crude sugar or Gur, a soft, saccharine mass,
reddish in color, and very soluble in water. The unrefined, dark
brown Guda of the Hindus was known to the ancient Persians, as
well as Shakar from which the dry, crystalline sugar was made.
At Leh there are five kinds of sugar imported: Tavi misri, flat cakes;
Kusa misri, heavier cakes; Khand, soft brown crystals; Gur, coarse
sugar; and Shahi or Kashi, sugar candy. The vernacular names
Misri (Egyptian) for refined sugar, and Chini (Chin.) for sugar
candy, indicate the comparatively recent introduction of these
products into India and Iran.
Salix fragilis L. (Salicaceae)
Bld-khisht (Teh.); Bid-anjubin, "willow honey" (Afg.); Bide
Knecht (Achundow) ; willow manna.
Field 127; W.H.M.M. 150748.
A saccharine secretion afforded by a species of willow has been
referred to by old writers on Eastern medicine. The drug occurs in
small, dirty white lumps, resembling in taste the European manna
obtained from the ash (Fraxinus Ornus L.) of Sicily. It is recom-
mended for Herpes labialis, or thrush.
Salvia Hydrangea DC. (Labiatae)
Gul-i-arbore(?) (Teh.); Issikuttuz (Turk.); Sarsand (Bal.); the
Boiss. 4: 606; Ph. Ind. 3: 94; Kew Bull. 1930, 459.
This is a handsome flowering plant of Iran, Baluchistan, and
Afghanistan. The drug consists of the mauve flowers with green-
veined bracts and small, rounded, brown seeds. Dymock says it is
allied to Jadeh, probably a Teucrium. The flowering tops of a
Moluccella, having enlarged purple calyces and a balm-like odor,
and the rose-colored, mucilaginous calyces of Hymenocrater elegans
Br., are used in medicine in Iran under the name of Gul-i-serwaj.
In Tabriz the inflorescence of S. Hydrangea is used for making a
PLANTS AND DRUGS OF IRAN AND IRAQ 169
medicinal tea. In Tehran the drug is said to stop excessive men-
Salvia macrosiphon Boiss. (Labiatae)
Tukhm-i-marv, Tukhm-i-anjurah Anjurah is a Persian name
for the mucilaginous seeds of Blepharis (Teh.); Kanocha, Marv
Field 136, 197; W.H.M.M. 150853; K.B. 338.
Schlimmer, Aitchison, and Dymock refer to species of sage used
in medicine under the name of Kanocha. Stapf has shown that they
are identical with those called Marv, and belong to the above species
of Salvia, a plant of Afghanistan and Iran. The seeds are light
brown or greenish, oval, lens-shaped, 3 mm. in length, the polished
surface having wavy or branching markings. The seeds are muci-
laginous when placed in water; they are used for debility. They
are also given to alleviate heart disturbances in pregnancy and
phlegmasia after childbirth (H.F.).
The seeds of S. aegyptica L., called Maur in Baluchistan, are
said to be a remedy for eye diseases.
Salvia sp. (Labiatae)
Khardal-i-shahri, Tukhm-i-khardal (Teh., Ham.); the seeds.
Field 252; K.B. 337.
Tukhm-i-khardal is the Persian name for mustard seed and the
seed of Salvadora persica, but in the above two specimens seeds of a
Salvia have been supplied. The seeds are rounded, 1 mm. in diameter,
grayish brown, with a minute, round umbilicus; a transparent
mucilaginous coating is formed when they are soaked in water. The
seeds are prescribed with bitter medicines.
Santalum album L. (Santalaceae)
Sandal-i-safid (Teh.) ; white sandal wood.
Field 232; W.H.M.M. 150789.
These are pieces of the fragrant, white sandal wood of India.
The important constituent of the wood is the volatile oil, of which
it yields from 2 to 5 per cent. This contains about 90 per cent of the
alcohol santalol. Sandalwood oil is used in perfumery, and in
170 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. IX
medicine for its stimulant (irritant) and antiseptic action in the
Saussurea Lappa C. B. Clarke (Compositae)
Qust-i-talkh, Butinak (Teh.); Patchak (Beng.); Kutha Kushta
patchuk (Hind.); Costum amarum (Ph. Pers.); Indian costus.
Ait.; Fl. Br. Ind. 3: 376; Schl.; Ph. Ind. 2: 296.
W.H.M.M. 150813; K.B. 338.
The soft, fragrant, whitish root comes from plants grown as a
Crown monopoly in Kashmir, and is exported to Iran, India, and
China. This ancient and valuable drug was called Arabian costus
as it was carried to Turkey and Europe by the Arabs. The root
occurs in cylindrical or twisted pieces, light colored, with an agreeable
odor and a bitter and biting aftertaste. A second sample of Kust
from Hamadan was a smaller root, spirally twisted and lighter in
color. Chob-i-kut is the name of a plant used to adulterate costus
root in Afghanistan. Various chemical principles have been separated
from the root, some of which account for the violet-like odor: Costu-
lactone isomeric with alantolactone costus acid, dehydrocostus
lactone, and costol. Costus root is prescribed externally and in-
ternally for various complaints, and is taken locally to ward off the
effects of snake and animal bites.
Semecarpus Anacardium L. (Anacardiaceae)
Baladur (Teh., Isf.); Bhela, Bhilava (Hind.); marking nut.
Field 439; W.H.M.M. 150873.
The marking nut tree inhabits the hotter part of India, Ceylon,
and Burma. The black, obliquely cordate nuts contain within the
pericarp a black, resinous, viscid, acrid juice which is used as marking
ink. A local caustic and vesicant, the juice, when applied to the skin,
causes intense pain and swelling. In small quantities, it is given for
relief in rheumatic pains and leprous affections. Prepared like tea,
it is also taken to relieve flatulence following severe piles (H.F.).
Sesamum indicum L. (Pedaliaceae)
Simsim (Iraq); Kunjad (Kurd.); Kundij (Turk.); Til, Jinjili,
Gingelly (Hind.) ; til or sesame seed.
PLANTS AND DRUGS OF IRAN AND IRAQ 171
Field 128A, 52 (Iraq).
Sesame is widely cultivated as a summer crop. The seeds, white,
brown, or black, are used for garnishing cakes and sweetmeats and
are eaten by the poor in times of scarcity. They contain about 50
per cent of a fixed oil which is an excellent substitute for olive oil
or other salad oil in cooking. The oil cake is a cattle food. The
oil is also the basis of most of the fragrant or scented oils medicated
oils prepared with various vegetable drugs.
In Baghdad, Rashi is the name given to a preparation of ground
sesame seed after it has been soaked and roasted, which is used as an
emollient, Rahishi (Ar.), Arwah-i-kunjad (Pers.).
Sesbania aculeata Poir. (Leguminosae)
Sesbaniyah (Iraq); Saisaban (Egy.); Rasin (Hind.); Akar,
Majandri (Bal.); Jayanti (Beng.); Sesbania seeds.
Field 47 (Iraq).
The plant has been introduced into Iraq and planted for wind-
breaks. The seeds are sold in bazaars throughout India and Iran.
They are dull grayish brown, oblong, 2 by 4 mm., smooth, hard, and
bitter to the taste. The Hindus have a superstition that sight of the
seeds will remove the pain of scorpion stings. They are used medi-
cinally on account of their astringent properties. The seeds are beaten
into a paste which is applied locally to cure eruptions.
Sisymbrium Sophia L. (Cruciferae)
Khakshir, Khakshir-i-shlrin (Teh.) ; Towdri, Khub-kalan, Khaksi
(Hind.) ; the seeds.
Ait.; Schl.; Boiss. 1: 216; Ph. Ind. 1: 118, 121.
Field 4 (Isf.), 50; W.H.M.M. 150712.
These seeds resemble in size, shape, and color the drug Tukhm-
i-khakshir talkh, the bitter Khakshir (Erysimum sp.), except that
they are dull and not shiny. There are several kinds of cruciferous
seeds known as "Towdri": pale, light brown, red, and black. The
seed of Lepidium Iberis L., the Kasis of Iran, is one of them, and
the seeds of Matthiola incana R. Br., from the Punjab and Sind, is
another. The seeds are small, yellowish brown, 1 mm. in length, and
become coated with transparent mucilage when placed in water.
The drug is considered aphrodisiac, "fattening the body and purify-
ing the blood."
172 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. IX
Taken with a little sugar and cold water it is a remedy for
nausea, or is given in hot water for stomach pains; it is said to be
harmless, even for children (H.F.).
Smilax China L., and S. glabra Roxb. (Liliaceae)
Chub Chini (Ind. bazaars); Tu fu ling (Chin.); Raiz de China
(Port.); Tuber Chinae; China root, Chinese sarsaparilla.
Schl.; Laufer 556; Colloquies; Ph. Ind. 3: 500.
W.H.M.M. 150773; K.B. 338.
This root was once a famous remedy for the treatment of Morbus
americanus (syphilis), and was first introduced into Europe by the
returning sailors of Columbus, and into India by the sailors of Vasco
da Gama. It is mentioned by Indian writers of the 16th century.
Garcia da Orta traced the source of the drug to China and records a
cure made in 1535. It was soon afterward introduced into Iran
by the Portuguese. Saponin was found in the root by Robert in
1911, but its therapeutical action is not considered very marked.
Solanum nigrum L. (Solanaceae)
Taj-i-rizi (Teh.); Inab-ath-thalab, "fox's grapes"; Inab-ed-dib
(Ar.) ; Karezgi (Bal.) ; black nightshade, wonderberry.
Achundow; Boiss. 4: 284; Ph. Ind. 2: 550; I.H.B.
Field 130A, 414; W.H.M.M. 150722; K.B. 339.
This species of Solanum is a common weed in Iran, where the
leaves are eaten as spinach, and the small, black fruits with yellow
seeds are medicinal. The berries are eaten by the country people
(G.). The Bote women employ the fruit as a cosmetic; they stick
the fresh seeds on their cheeks to remove freckles and improve the
Mixed with violet flowers, Nymphaea alba L., jujube, sebestan,
and sugar, the fruits of S. nigrum are prepared like tea to soften the
feces before giving a purgative, especially in typhoid fever (H.F.).
The fruits of bittersweet (S. Dulcamara L.), under the name of
Sag-anjar, "dog's grapes," are among the drugs exported to India.
They are considered laxative and are employed in chronic enlarge-
ment of the liver.
PLANTS AND DRUGS OF IRAN AND IRAQ 173
Solanum xanthocarpum Schrad. & Wendl. and S. Melongena L.
Tukhm-i-badanjan (Teh.); seeds of the wild eggplant.
These plants occur throughout India. The stem and leaves are
armed with strong prickles; the flowers are in racemes; and the berries
are spherical, smooth, and marked with variegated, green and
yellow stripes. The seeds are reniform, 2 mm. in diameter, com-
pressed, and light brown in color. They are expectorant in asthma
Sorghum vulgare Pers. and Andropogon Sorghum Brot. (Gram-
Dhurah, Idhrah baidha (Ar.); Dari, Gowar (Hind.); Baryadh
dari (Turk.); Zuratspi (Kurd.); great millet.
Field 111 (Iraq).
Giant millet is cultivated extensively as an irrigated summer
cereal crop in the riverain areas between Basra and Mosul. During
the past few years there has been an annual export of grain from Iraq
amounting to between 30,000 and 50,000 tons. The grain is well
liked by the people as a food (G.).
Spinacia oleracea L. (Chenopodiaceae)
Tukhm-i-ispanaj (Teh.); Ispinakh (Iraq); Sag Palak (Hind.);
Field 45; W.H.M.M. 150912.
Spinach is cultivated in kitchen gardens in Iraq and Iran for its
large, fleshy leaves which are eaten as a vegetable. It is sometimes
confused with spinach beet (Beta vulgaris var.), which is much used
as a substitute for spinach. The fruits are in green clusters, tri-
angular, each angle terminating in two or more spines, the surface
rugose and wrinkled. The fruits contain mucilage and alkaline
nitrates, and are demulcent and diuretic, employed for fever and
inflammation of the bowels.
The seeds of Chenopodium capitatum Aschers. are also sold
under the above vernacular names.
174 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. IX
Stachys germanica L. (Labiatae)
Tuklejah(?) (Ham.) ; the flowers.
This woolly plant and its varieties are found in the Caucasus
and in Europe. The drug consists chiefly of the sub-oblique, five-
toothed calyces covered with tomentum, having the remains of
flowers and stalks. It is given to relieve stomach disorders.
Stachys lavandulaefolia Vahl (Labiatae)
Marzanjush (Tab.); Mardan gusht, "men's ears"; Sansaq
(Ar.); the leaves.
Achundow; Ait.; Ph. Ind. 3; Gilliat-Smith and Turrill, Kew Bull.
W.H.M.M. 150833; K.B. 339.
This species of Stachys with purple flowers is found in Asia
Minor, the Caucasus, Kurdistan, and Iran, and is one of the sources
of an ancient Persian drug. Marjanjush is referred by Achundow to
Origanum Majorana L. We can confirm Dymock in identifying it
with Zataria multiflora Boiss. (q.v.), a plant which in India merits
the appropriate indigenous name of Zatar. Gilliat-Smith remarks
that the inflorescence is sold in the bazaars of Tabriz, and is made
into an infusion for relieving spasms and stomach disorders.
Strychnos Ignatii Berg. (Loganiaceae)
Paptiyal (Teh.); Papita (Ar., Hind., Bom.); Ignatia Amara;
St. Ignatius' bean.
These seeds from the Philippine Islands are in general use in drug
shops in the East. They are ovoid, triangular or bluntly angular,
and about an inch in length; the horny albumen is intensely bitter
and contains the alkaloids strychnine and brucine. In native
practice preparations of the seed are used in plague and other
infectious diseases and in intercostal neuralgia.
Strychnos Nux Vomica L. (Loganiaceae)
Kuchulah (Teh.); Fuluz mahi (Pers.); Kuchila (Hind.); nux
PLANTS AND DRUGS OF IRAN AND IRAQ 175
Ait.; Schl.; Ph. Ind. 2: 459; Fl. Br. Ind. 4: 90.
W.H.M.M. 150816; K.B. 339.
Nux vomica or Kuchula seeds are frequently referred to in
ancient Persian works. In the "Makhzan el Adwiya" they are said to
have been used from very early times for paralysis. Called Azaraki
by Indian Mohammedans, they are given for debility. The seeds are
imported from India, and are known throughout Iran as a poison.
Aitchison says, "The seed of the nux vomica is imported freely into
these parts (northeast of Iran) as a valuable tonic, but it is chiefly
employed by the nomad tribes for poisoning wolves and dogs, these
animals frequently proving destructive to their flocks."
Tagetes erecta L. (Compositae)
Gul-i-ja'fari (Teh.); Ja'fari (Iraq); Gul gaindo (Bal.); Gul-
jaferi (Hind.); Rojia (Port.); African marigold.
Both the African marigold and the French marigold (T. patula
L.) are cultivated in flower gardens for their orange-yellow blossoms
and scented foliage. They were probably introduced into India by
the Portuguese. The flowers are often worn as garlands during
religious festivals. Sold in the bazaars in India and Iran, the dried
flower heads are said to purify the blood.
Tamarindus indica L. (Leguminosae)
Tukhm-i-tamr (Teh.); Baz-i-tamar-hindi (Ar.); seeds of the
The seeds of the Indian tamarind tree are dark brown, shining,
flattened, of an irregular outline, containing ivory-white cotyledons.
Size is made from the seeds, and it appears that this preparation is
used in Tehran as a plaster for boils (see "Tamarind Seed" by D.
Hooper, Agricultural Ledger, No. 2, 1907).
Tamarix gallica L. var. mannifera Ehrenb. (Tamaricaceae)
Gaz-i-khunsar, Gaz-alafi, Gaz-anjabin, "tamarisk honey" (Teh.) ;
Gaz-i-shakar, "tamarisk sugar"; tamarisk manna.
176 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. IX
Ph. Pers.; Ait.; Boiss. 1: 778; Ph. Ind. 1: 161.
Field 13; W.H.M.M. 150881; K.B. 340.
Aitchison collected in the Badghis samples of manna from this
variety of Tamarix, which the natives distinguished from the
ordinary species, T. gallica. The saccharine exudation of these
plants is said to be collected only in southeastern Iran, in the dis-
trict of Kerman, where small galls also are formed on the leaves.
In other parts of Iran Gaz-anjabin is obtained from other species of
tamarisk (see T. pentandra}. Ehrenberg believes the sugar to be
formed as a result of the punctures of Coccus manniparus. The
sample from Tehran is a dried cake of confection wrapped in silver
paper, probably a mixture of the manna with ordinary sugar.
Tamarix pentandra Pall. (Tamaricaceae)
Guezmazedj (Teh.); Guize khouncar, Hebbel asle (Schl.); manna.
Tamarisk Manna, D. Hooper, Jour. As. Soc. Bengal, n.s. V,
1909, 31-36; Boiss. 1:773.
The various species of tamarisk are the commonest shrubs or
small trees found from Quetta to Balamtghab, and from Herat to
Meshed, up to 3,000 feet. At least six species are widely distributed
in Baluchistan, and two of them, T. articulata Vahl (Siah gaz) and
T. pentandra (Shingir gaz), have been observed to yield a sweet gum.
The latter is known to give large quantities of this saccharine secre-
tion in the Helmand. The samples are similar; they are sweet,
sticky, transparent, quite soluble in water, and become hard and
opaque when kept, owing to the crystallization of the saccharose.
Taxus baccata L. (Taxaceae)
Zarnab (Isf.); Barambi, Talispatra (Hind.); Himalayan yew.
Zarnab is an Arabic name for an odoriferous drug and plant
quoted by old writers on Eastern materia medica. The drug has
been referred to various trees of the pine and fir group, particularly
the yew and Abies Webbiana Lindl. (Ph. Ind. 3: 375). The present
drug appears to consist of the staminate inflorescence of the yew, but
other recorded specimens are mixtures of the leaves, branches, and
PLANTS AND DRUGS OF IRAN AND IRAQ 177
bark of a conifer. The drug is regarded as antispasmodic and is
given in asthmatic affections.
Terminalia bellerica Roxb. (Combretaceae)
Balilah (Teh., Isf.); Balera (Hind.); Belleric myrobalans.
Ph. Pers.; Schl.; Ph. Ind. 2: 5; Fl. Br. Ind. 2: 446.
Field 424; K.B. 340.
This is an Indian tree, and because of its medicinal properties it
bears the Sanskrit synonym Amla-ghnaka or "wind killing." The
belleric myrobalans of commerce are the fruits of this tree, and are
imported into Iran from India. Mohammedan physicians regard
them as astringent and digestive, and use them for making a lotion
for sore eyes. Myrobalans, mixed with cardamoms, are given in
pills to cure general debility (H.F.).
Terminalia Chebula Retz. (Combretaceae)
Halilah-i-zard, Halilah-i-kabuli, Halilah-i-siyah (Teh., Isf.);
Har, Kara (Hind.); Hirda (Bom.); Haritaki (Beng.); Chebulic
Ph. Pers.; Schl.; Fl. Br. Ind. 2: 447; Ph. Ind. 2: 1.
Field 19, 407, 417; W.H.M.M. 150777; K.B. 341.
Myrobalans were known to the early Arabian and Greek writers,
and several kinds were described. At the present time two varieties
are found in every Eastern bazaar: (1) the young, unripe nuts which
turn black on drying, Halllah-i-siyah or black myrobalans; and (2)
the mature nuts, which are larger and yellowish in color, called
Halilah-i-zard or Halllah-i-kabull. The first kind is used chiefly in
medicine, and many fanciful properties are attributed to it. Pow-
dered and made into pills it is used as a strong purgative and to
relieve stomach pains (H.F.).
The yellow myrobalans contain about 30 per cent of tannin and
are employed as a tanning agent.
Teucrium Polium L. (Labiatae)
Maryam nukhudi, "peas of Mary" (Teh.); Ja'ad (Iraq); Meriam
Nekhodi, according to Schlimmer, is the Tehran name for T. scor-
dioides Schreb. The Merian gole of the "Terminologie" is referred to
178 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. IX
Salvia officinalis L., but according to Gilliat-Smith, this plant,
although cultivated in gardens in Tabriz, has no local name and is
not used by the natives.
Boiss. 4: 821; I.H.B.; Ph. Ind. 3: 125.
Field 130; W.H.M.M. 150799; K.B. 341.
This plant is the poley germander or polion of the Greeks. The
drug consists of the small, woolly flowers, mixed with some stalks
and leaves. It has the fragrance of thyme, and is given as an infusion
for internal disorders to relieve pains during pregnancy (H.F.).
In Baluchistan T. Stocksianum Boiss. is called Kalpora, and is a
remedy for fever.
Thea sinensis L. (Theaceae)
Cha'I sabz (Teh.); Cha (Hind.); green tea leaves.
A sample of prepared green tea. Tea is imported in immense
quantities, chiefly from southern Iran and India. Iranis are very
fond of this beverage; prepared tea is sold in nearly every bazaar.
According to Laufer (pp. 553-554) "in Mongol, Turkish, Persian,
Indian, Portuguese, neo-Greek, and Russian we equally find the word
cai, based on North Chinese c'a. The Tibetans retain the Chinese
word in the ancient form^'a (d2a)."
Thymus Serpyllum L. var. Kotschyanus Boiss. (Labiatae)
Joshan ShirazI (Teh.); Zatar (Syr., Iraq); Seetere (Schl.); Djusha
(Pers.) ; the herb.
Ait.; Boiss. 4: 556; Post; Schl.; Fl. Br. Ind. 4: 649; Ph. Ind.
Field 75A; K.B. 341.
This variety of thyme is a plant of Iran and Kurdistan. The
leaves are rounded, cuneate, ovate to lanceolate, with prominent
nerves below. The leaves are fragrant, and resemble those of Zataria
multiflora Boiss., a plant which also has the name of Zatar. Post
applies the name Zatar to all plants of the genus Thymus. Boissier,
on the other hand, refers Zatar to Origanum Maru L., Zatar farisi to
T. capitatus L., and Zaeteran to T. decussatis Boiss. It would thus
appear that Zatar and Joshan ShirazI are similar drugs, characterized
by a thyme-like aroma. The leaves are carminative.
PLANTS AND DRUGS OF IRAN AND IRAQ 179
Tilia rubra DC. (Tiliaceae)
J^J" O j>
Barg tiol (Teh.) ; floral leaves of the lime tree.
The flowers of this Eastern lime or linden are not elsewhere
referred to as medicinal, but are probably, like other plants of this
genus, given for their mucilaginous and demulcent properties. The
flowers of the European lime (Tilia europaea) are prescribed for
catarrh and nervous complaints.
Trachydium Lehmanni Benth. (Umbelliferae)
ShagagI, Shekakul (Teh.); Chakha-khoul (Turk.); Chighaghole
metri (Schl.) ; parsnip of the desert, root of wisdom.
Schl.; Post 368; Boiss. 2: 891; Ait.; Ph. Ind. 2: 136.
W.H.M.M. 150869; K.B. 342.
The roots of this and other umbelliferous plants are collected in
Afghanistan and Iran and exported to India as a medicine. The root,
the shape and size of a small carrot, is about 1 inch in diameter at
the thicker end, tapering to a point. Internally it is white, starchy,
friable, and sweetish to the taste. It is considered very valuable as
a diet for improving the memory and increasing brain power. The
name is applied to other stimulating roots eaten by women to increase
their embonpoint. The roots of Caucalis, Pastinaca, Eryngium, and
Eremodaucus are drugs of this class used as food for invalids.
Trachylobium Hornemannianum Hayne (Leguminosae)
Sandalus (Ind. bazaars) ; gum copal.
This resin of African origin is too well known as an article of
commerce to require description. As a drug it is used in native
practice as an astringent, anthelmintic, diuretic, and emmenagogue.
Made into ointment it is applied to wounds to promote granulation.
Tribulus terrestris L. (Zygophyllaceae)
Khar-khasak (Teh.); Hasach (Iraq); Chota gokhru (Hind.);
Tribolia (modern Gr.); small caltrops.
180 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. IX
Achundow; I.H.B.; Fl. Br. Ind. 1: 423; Ph. Ind. 1: 243.
Field 253; W.H.M.M. 150849; K.B. 342.
This plant is found in the sandy deserts of northwestern India,
where the fruits are collected for the market. As a drug it is men-
tioned by Dioscorides and Pliny and in the Bower manuscript. The
fruit, the size of a small bean, has five cells, each of which is wedge-
shaped and armed with four strong prickles. The seeds are oily and
enclosed in hard, stony cells. The fruits are diuretic and are said
to act as a charm in bladder troubles. Dulm-ul-hasak and Rughan-
i-char-i-chesak are names for an oil prepared from the fruits and
applied to relieve rheumatism. Small caltrops are given as an
infusion for gonorrhea (H.F.).
Trifolium alexandrinum L. (Leguminosae)
Barsim (Iraq) ; seeds of berseem or Egyptian clover.
Field 31, 51 (Iraq).
This is a well-known fodder and green manure. Experiments
have shown that it can be grown satisfactorily as a winter crop.
The seeds are yellowish brown, smooth, oval, 2 mm. long.
Trifolium repens L. (Leguminosae)
Tukhm-i-shabdar (Teh.); Shaftal (Punj., Bal.); Nafal, Nifil
(Iraq); white clover seed.
Field 29 (Iraq); W.H.M.M. 150902. t
Clover or trefoil grows in northern India, at an elevation sometimes
of 10,000 feet in the Himalayas. The seeds are oval, brown or green,
and are used for making cooling poultices for boils.
Trigonella Foenum-graecum L. (Leguminosae)
Tukhm-i-shambalilah (Teh., Ham.); Hulbah (Iraq); the seeds.
Shambalilah (Teh.); Methi (Hind., Bom.); the herb, fenugreek.
Ait.; I.H.B.; Boiss. 2: 70; Post; Ph. Ind. 1: 402.
Field 27, 71A, 213; 16 (Iraq); W.HM.M. 150749, 150795;
Fenugreek is cultivated universally in gardens as a potherb, and
in Egypt and Afghanistan as a food and fodder crop. The leaves
PLANTS AND DRUGS OF IRAN AND IRAQ 181
are occasionally used for poultices and in curries. The seeds are
mucilaginous and have been known since antiquity for their medicinal
properties, which are stomachic and cordial. As an infusion they
are given for menorrhagia (H.F.).
Triticum vulgare Vill. (Gramineae)
Gandum-i-safld, Gandum-abI (Teh.); Kanim (Kurd.); Gehun
(Hind.); Godumai (Tarn.); wheat grains.
Nishastah (Teh.); wheat starch.
Field 160, 273; 9, 26, 27, 35, 40, 42, 49, 56 (Iraq); 57A, 58A,
59A, 60A, 61A, 62A.
Wheat is one of the principal winter crops grown in cultivated
areas throughout the country. Herodotus (III, 22) mentions only
wheat as the staple food of the Persians at the time of Cambyses.
Modern Irani primitive physicians use wheat starch as a dusting
powder to allay the pain of burns and inflammation.
Guest (p. 102) records the following information: "Triticum
(Gramineae). Wheat. Hintah, Bughdai (Turk.), Ganim (Kurd.).
One of the two principal winter crops grown extensively in the culti-
vated areas throughout the country; the other is barley. There
are several indigenous spp. and many hundreds of local varieties.
Wheat is grown on irrigation in the riverain areas of Lower Iraq
and, more extensively, on rain in the 'daim' areas of the upper
plains; it is also grown in the valleys of Kurdistan (up to alt. about
2,000 m.). There is in normal years a considerable export of grain
from Iraq, denoting a surplus above the requirements of the inhabi-
tants. Formerly, the grain had a bad name in the trade owing to the
dirt and other impurities which it contained; it was classed as
'Persian' and fetched a poor price in the world markets. Of recent
years a great improvement has taken place in the cleanliness and
quality of the grain exported from this country and it is confidently
hoped to establish a name for Iraqi wheat. To this end legislation
has recently been introduced to encourage the propagation of
'Ajibah wheat (one of the Punjab wheats), which was issued by the
Department of Agriculture a few years ago after trials had proved
it to be superior to any other local or imported variety.
"Bread Wheat, T. vulgare Vill. Almost the only kind of wheat
grown on irrigation in the riverain areas of Lower Iraq. In certain
years it suffers badly from rust disease which takes a heavy toll of
182 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. IX
the crop. This is one of the reasons for the growing popularity of the
newly-introduced 'Ajibah, a variety highly resistant to rust. A
certain amount of bread wheat is also grown on rain in the 'daim'
areas of the north, where it is known as Hintah Qandahari (N.).
"Macaroni Wheat, T. durum Desf. Hintah Khushnah. Much
the greater portion of the 'daim' wheat in the north is of this type.
It gives a higher yield, has greater resistance to drought and is more
immune to rust than the local bread wheats. The grain of this type
of wheat is harder and larger than the grain of bread wheat; but
the bread made from it is of a poor quality. It is largely eaten in the
form of Burghul (Kurd.), a kind of local porridge.
"Khorasan Wheat, T. orientale, and Polish Wheat, T. poloni-
cum. Both these spp. have long hard grains known as Sinn-aj-
jamal or Sinn-al-fll. Sometimes cultivated in the north.
"Dwarf Wheat, T. compactum L. Hintah walwal. One or two
wild spp. of Triticum and of the grass, Aegilops (now generally
included as a subsp. of this genus), are known to occur in Iraq. Of
these the following may be mentioned:
"T. dicoccoides Koern. A specimen has been received from Jebel
Sin jar, where it is said to grow on the hillside."
In the collections of the Rustam Agricultural Experimental Farm
at Hinaidi near Baghdad, Iraq, the following varieties of wheat are
(a) T. vulgare durum libicum. Black wheat. Rustam No. 41.
Field 15A. Origin Euphrates, Iraq.
(6) T. vulgare erytholenca. Punjab B8. Rustam No. 43. Field
ISA. Origin Punjab, India.
(c) T. vulgare albidum. Linga No. 3. Rustam No. 141. Field
17A. Origin Australia.
(d) T. vulgare leucospermum. U.S.A. Rustam No. 207. Field
16A. Origin Pusa, India.
(e) T. vulgare turcicum. Ajibak. Punjab No. 8A. Rustam
No. 210. Field 19A. Origin Punjab, India.
(/) T. vulgare albidum. Clarendon wheat K. Rustam No. 602.
Field 14A. Origin Australia.
During excavations at Kish and Jemdet Nasr in Iraq by the Field
Museum-Oxford University Joint Expedition, samples of wheat and
barley were found in pottery vessels belonging to the period approxi-
mately three thousand years before the Christian era. These grains,
PLANTS AND DRUGS OF IRAN AND IRAQ 183
preserved through being burnt, are difficult to identify with regard
to their species. A summary of this discussion has been published by
Henry Field, "Ancient Wheat and Barley from Kish, Mesopotamia,"
Amer. Anthr., 34, No. 2, pp. 303-309. For further information on
this subject the reader is referred to various publications by Nikolai
Vavilov, Institute of Plant Industry, Leningrad, U.S.S.R.
Tulipa montana Lindl. (Liliaceae)
Fraiyonah (Iraq); Lala (Afg.); Govarikh, Wodak (Bal.); bulbs.
The bulbs of this tulip of Iran, Baluchistan, and Afghanistan
have brown, coppery skins. They are sold in the Mosul market as
food (G.). The bulbs are eaten also in Baluchistan, where the
leaves are a fodder for goats.
Uncaria Gambier Roxb. (Rubiaceae)
Kat-i-gulabI (Teh.); Chinai-katha (Bom.); extract, pale catechu.
This is a specimen of the pale catechu of commerce obtained from
Singapore. In the form of cubes, 1 inch across, it is prepared from
the leaves and stalks of the plant grown in the Malay States. It is
very astringent, as it contains both catechin and tannin. In Tehran
it is prescribed for coughs.
Veratrum album L. (Liliaceae)
Kundush (Ham., Teh.); Kondochi (Schl.); hellebore root.
Boiss. 5: 171.
Field 221; K.B. 343.
White hellebore is a plant of Europe, Central Asia, and Japan.
The root is mentioned as a drug in the herbals of Hippocrates and
Galen. The rhizome is dark brown, cylindrical or slightly tapering,
2.5 cm. in diameter, with numerous scars of broken rootlets, whitish
within. It contains a poisonous alkaloid, jervine. The root is one
of the Irani poisons, and is used only externally, as a paste for head-
ache and facial neuralgia. It is also applied as a relief from nasal
184 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. IX
Verbascum Thapsus L. (Scrophulariaceae)
Mazaryun (Teh.) ; Mahi zahraj, Bon tamaku (Ar.) ; Gidar tamaku
(Hind.); great mullein.
This mullein grows from the temperate Himalayas westward to
Britain. The drug consists of broken stalks and thick, hairy leaves.
The narcotic action of mullein on fish appears to be well known to
the Arabs and Iranis, the meaning of Mahi zahraj being "fish poison."
Mohammedan physicians prescribe it in gout and rheumatism in
combination with aperients. Throughout Europe mullein has long
had a reputation in the pulmonary diseases of cattle, on which
account it bears the name of cow's lungwort.
Vetiveria zizanioides Stapf (Andropogon muricatus Retz)
Barmakiya, Bikh-i-wala (Pers.); Khas Khas (Hind.); Izkhir-i-
jami (Ar.); Vetiver (Tarn.); root of cuscus grass.
Field 5 (Isf.).
The use of these fragrant, wiry roots for medicinal purposes and
in perfumery has been common in India for a long time. The roots
emit a pleasant odor when moist, and for this reason they are woven
into screens and mats (tatties) which hang over doors and windows
to cool and perfume the atmosphere during the hot season. A paste
of the root is applied to the skin to relieve oppressive heat of the
body, and a cooling aromatic bath is prepared by adding some broken
root to the water. The root yields a fragrant essential oil which
commands a high price as a perfume (Otto Stapf, Kew Bulletin,
Vicia Faba L. (Leguminosae)
Baghala (Iraq); Banklent (Bal.); Bakla (Hind.); Baqilla, Baqlah
(Turk.); Paglah (Kurd.); broad or horse bean.
Field 4, 56, 69 (Iraq).
This legume is a native of Iran and is now universally cultivated.
The beans are a well-known vegetable and an excellent horse food.
The shoots are said to be efficacious in rousing a drunkard from
PLANTS AND DRUGS OF IRAN AND IRAQ 185
stupor. The seeds are oblong, 24 by 18 mm. Those of the small
variety are oblong, 8 by 5 mm., brown in color, with a white hilum.
These seeds are exported from Egypt in large quantities for feeding
Vigna Cat jang Walp. (Leguminosae)
Lubia (Iraq); Mak (Bal.); Chowli (Hind.); Barbati (Beng.);
Field 58, 93A; 50, 64 (Iraq).
The cow pea is cultivated as an irrigated summer crop and much
grown on mud flats along the receding rivers in summer and autumn.
The green pods are cooked and eaten as a vegetable and the seeds are
eaten as a pulse. The seeds are recognized by their oblong shape,
10 by 7 mm., and white color with a brown or black spot or hilum
on one side. The black-eyed variety is known in Italy under the
name of Faggiuola del occhio.
Viola sp. (Violaceae)
Gul-i-banafshah (Teh.) ; flowers of violet.
Abu Mansur; Ph. Pers.; Ait.; Boiss. 1: 450; Post 118; Ph. Ind.
Field 8, 76; W.H.M.M. 150710; K.B. 343.
Violet flowers are regarded in Iran and the Punjab as a valuable
medicine. The sweet violet (V. odorata) is stated to be the origin of
the commercial article, but as the flowers are frequently broken and
mixed with leaves and stalks, it is not possible to determine the
species. The drug is astringent, demulcent, and diaphoretic, and
mixed with lime juice and sugar, is administered as an infusion for
fever and headache.
Mixed with Echium amoenum Fisch. & Mey., Nymphaea alba
L., Cordia myxa L., Zizyphus vulgaris L., as well as lime juice and
sugar, Viola sp. is given in an infusion for headache, fevers (not
malarial), and to soften feces before purgation (H.F.).
Vitis vinifera L. (Vitaceae)
Grapes: 'Inab (Iraq); Angur, Drakh (Hind.).
Raisins: Kishmish, Munakha (Pers.); fruit of the vine.
186 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. IX
Field 63, Kishmish-askari ; 266, Kishmish-i-sabzah ; 267, Kish-
mish-i-dugh; 99A, 100A, 101A, 102A, 103A, Pasteek.
Grapes, in Sanskrit, Draksha, are noted by Susruta and Charaka;
in the dried state they were used in medicine on account of their
demulcent, laxative, and cooling properties. The raisins found in
India are the sultanas from Kabul and Iran, some of which are very
large and pale greenish yellow in color, called Angul Drakh; the
black bloom raisins, Kala Drakh, from the same countries, are
used for medicinal purposes; and an inferior kind called Mun-
akha is like the pudding raisins sold in England. Pasteek of
Baghdad is a confection of raisins and nuts made in Diarbekir and
Kurdistan. Soo'juch is another confection of raisins and almonds
made in Kurdistan and eaten in winter in place of fresh fruit.
Withania somnifera Dunal (Solanaceae)
Buzidan (Teh., Ham.); Asgandh (Hind., Guz.); Sekran (Syr.);
Hajarat el dib, "wolfs tree" (Ar.); the root.
Boiss. 4: 287; Fl. Br. Ind. 4: 239; I.H.B.; Post; Ph. Ind. 2: 566;
Kew and Pharm. Soc. Museums.
W.H.M.M. 150806; K.B. 343-344.
This is an unarmed shrub with ovate, woolly leaves, inhabiting
the south of Europe, Syria, Arabia, India, and Africa. The roots
are long, tapering, light brown, with knotty crowns, plump, smooth,
white internally, with a short, starchy fracture. The taste is muci-
laginous and slightly bitter. From observations on the nature of this
plant and the specific names somnifera and hypnotica given to it by
botanists, it might be expected to be harmful to human beings. In
Hamadan the root is considered a poison and in parts of Arabia
animals refuse to graze on the plant. In Baluchistan, however, it is
said to be a vegetable and fodder for goats. Duthie says the shrub
is alterative and the root is given to horses. F. B. Power and A. H.
Salway (Proc. Chem. Soc., London, 1911) found evidence of an alka-
loid and other crystalline principles in the root; but it contained no
mydriatic alkaloid, and physiological tests failed to confirm the
sedative and hypnotic properties attributed to it.
Zanthoxylum Rhetsa DC. (Rutaceae)
^ u** A cy
Dahan-bastah, Dahan bastah-baz (Teh.); Fagara Avicennae.
PLANTS AND DRUGS OF IRAN AND IRAQ 187
Field 172; W.H.M.M. 150760.
The fruits of this tree are oval or nearly spherical, of a bright
reddish brown color, finely wrinkled, opening when ripe, disclosing
a black, shining seed. The Iranis call it Kababah-i-dahan kushadeh,
"open-mouthed cubebs," on account of the gaping appearance of
the carpels. The taste is at first pleasant like lemon, but afterward
pungent, producing much the effect of pyrethrum on the palate.
The fruits contain a volatile oil and resins, and are used as a tonic in
fever, dyspepsia, and cholera. They are also given for cystitis in
Zataria multiflora Boiss. (Labiatae)
Ab-i-sham, Afsin, Marzanpish, Zatar (Teh.); Sa'atar (Ind.
bazaars) ; Izgun, Isghand (Bal.) ; the herb.
Boiss. 4: 561; Post; I.H.B.; Ph. Ind. 3: 114.
Field 173, 182; W.H.M.M. 150708, 150833; K.B. 344.
This small plant is found in the hills of Muscat in Oman, Iran,
and Baluchistan. The species is allied to Z. bracteata, which some-
times bears the same vernacular names. Marzanpish, the name it
has in Tehran bazaars, is also applied to another fragrant labiate
(see Stachys lavandulaefolia). The small, thick, orbicular, and
glandular-dotted leaves have the odor of thymol, and are credited
with the carminative properties of thyme and mint. They are given
as an infusion for premature labor pains and rupture (H.F.).
Zizyphora tenuior L. (Labiatae)
Kakuti (Teh.); Kahkuti (Bal.); Mishk-i-taramashia (Ind.
bazaars) ; the herb.
Boiss. 4: 587; Ait.; I.H.B.; Ph. Ind. 3: 115.
W.H.M.M. 150865; K.B. 344.
This is a small labiate with spiked flowers found in Iran, Balu-
chistan, and Afghanistan. Aitchison says it is much used in medicine
owing to its strong aroma of peppermint and thyme. In Baluchistan
the plant is taken to allay fever, and the seeds, powdered and mixed
with buttermilk, are used in cases of dysentery. In Tehran the herb
is employed as a cordial and stomachic.
188 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. IX
Zizyphus vulgaris L. (Rhamnaceae)
'Unnab, Barg-i-unnab (Teh.); 'Unnab (Iraq); Ber (Hind.);
jujube, fruits and leaves.
Achundow; Boiss. 2: 12; Ph. Ind. 1: 350; Post.
Field 12; 79A; W.H.M.M. 150801; K.B. 344.
The indigenous form of the jujube is a shrub, rarely a tree, in the
hills from the Badghis eastward to Kashmir. It is cultivated in all
orchards for its fruit, which is eaten by the natives, especially on
journeys; this, Aitchison thinks, may account for the spread of the
tree throughout Asia along caravan routes. The fruits, which are
sweet and wholesome, are the origin of the confection called jujube.
They are imported into India, and are used as a demulcent and
medicinally from the Persian Gulf to China, where they exist in
many varieties and constitute one of the important fruits of the
country. The leaves of the jujube tree are eaten with catechu as an
astringent, and are made into a poultice to promote the suppuration
DRUGS OF MINERAL ORIGIN
Zaj-u-safid (Teh.); Sheb (Bagh., Iraq); Spati-kari (Sans.);
Zamchi (Turk.); Phitkari, Phataki (Hind.).
Field 250; 126A.
Crystals of alum sulphate, with a styptic, sweetish taste. Alum
is used to stop bleeding, to settle turbid water, and in the native
tanning industry. It is also a whitening agent and used as an
astringent (H.F.). It is obtained in commercial quantities from
Aksu and Kuchar in eastern Turkestan.
Kuhl or Surmah (Pers.); Arjan, Surma-ka-pathar (Hind.); black
sulphide of antimony, Kermes mineral, kohl.
Field 10 (Isf.), 40A.
Kohl or powdered black antimony is used throughout the East
for blackening the eyelids. Introduced originally by the native
doctors, hakims, as a remedy for eye diseases, it is now used by
women as a cosmetic to improve their appearance. Lampblack is
sometimes sold to take the place of the mineral compound. A
detailed summary of the use of kohl in southwestern Asia will form
part of a forthcoming publication (H.F.).
Gil-i-armanT (Pers., Hind.); Hajr-el-armeni (Ar.); Armenian
bole or earth, ocher.
Field 196, 235; 139A.
Armenian clay consists of oxide of iron mixed with carbonate of
lime. Clay of bright red contains a small amount of lime, but lighter-
colored clays effervesce strongly with acids and contain less oxide of
iron. Armenian bole, either by itself or mixed with red sandalwood
and spices, is painted on the face and body to relieve skin affections,
boils, and sores. It is one of the earths eaten by pregnant women.
In Afghanistan this habit is so frequent that the term "Gil-khwar"
is applied to clay or chalk eaters (see Laufer, Berthold, "Geophagy,"
Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Anthro. Series, 18, No. 2, 1930).
190 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. IX
C?- ? ->
Zarnikh, Zarnickh-i-dandan (Teh.); Zarnikh-zard (Isf.); Hartal
(Hind.); Haritala (Sans.); yellow sulphide of arsenic, orpiment.
Field 230; W.H.M.M. 150825.
Orpiment is obtained from the Hayana Mountains, Iran, and
from China. It occurs in massive or lamellar, golden yellow crystal-
line pieces, sometimes mixed with gray or black metallic portions.
It is used as an alterative and nervine tonic. Mixed with lime it is
employed as a depilatory (H.F.).
Gach-i-kashan (Teh.); Guetcha (Schl.); Gil-i-dschar (Achundow,
Ph. Pers.); Sanjirahut (Sans.); Sufid pathar (Hind.); gypsum.
Field 215; W.H.M.M. 150893.
Gypsum is a white crystalline mineral, transparent, and slightly
soluble in water. Some bazaar specimens are mixed with mineral
Plaster of Paris is powdered gypsum deprived of its water of
crystallization by heat. To stop epistaxis it is dissolved in water
and rubbed on the forehead (H.F.).
Lasurkh (Teh., Isf.); copper oxide, oxidized copper.
Field 151, 427; W.H.M.M. 150822.
Copper oxide is heavy, gray or black metal with crystalline
fracture. It is said to be prepared "by placing the metal in a mouse's
stomach and burning," and the resulting compound is used directly
for ophthalmia. "It is an adhesive application for the eyes to relieve
swelling." Lasurkh is also regarded as a form of kohl, or preparation
of antimony, which ladies apply to their eyelids and brows, not only
to give them a beautiful black but to smooth away excrescences.
Field 228, 251.
PLANTS AND DRUGS OF IRAN AND IRAQ 191
Gil-i-sarshur (Teh., Afg.) is the name given by Aitchison to the
edible clay of Afghanistan. The term is applied to a clay of general
domestic utility. In Iran it is the name of an earth used by women
for cleansing the hair. The two samples from Tehran were stated
to be used as "hair cosmetic" and "complexion cosmetic" (H.F.).
Safid ab-i-shaikh (Teh.); Isfedaj (Ar.); Sufeda (Hind.); carbonate
of lead, white lead, painters' whitening.
A soft, white, heavy powder, this is used in making ointment of
lead carbonate, which acts as a local sedative and astringent.
Murda sang-i-nugra'i, Murda sang-i-tila'I, Murda sang, "death
stone" (Teh.); Sindur (Bom.); litharge.
W.H.M.M. 150704, 150772.
The specimens have a similar appearance; they consist of pieces
of fused metal with a grayish brown or pinkish exterior. They are
probably samples of the unfinished product of the action of heated
air on melted lead, and not proper litharge.
Shurah-i-qalam (Teh.); Shorah (Hind.); niter, saltpeter.
Field 231; W.H.M.M. 150854.
Obtained on a large scale from the saltpeter earth of the Punjab
and Bihar, crude saltpeter occurs in small, dirty crystals, mixed with
much common salt. Shurah-i-qalam is pure saltpeter in white,
crystalline, pen-shaped prisms (qalam=pen). Niter or saltpeter is
prescribed for difficult urination and for gonorrhea (H.F.).
Gil-i-daghistan (Isf., Teh.).
Field 9 (Isf.), 227.
This is a grayish white clay, a compound of silica and alumina,
in heavy lumps, soapy to the touch and adhesive to the tongue.
The clay is brought from Daghestan in the northeastern part of the
192 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. IX
Caucasus, and is used with other medicaments and applied to
infected parts of the body. It is also taken internally as a tonic
in pregnancy, or, as Schlimmer remarks, to satisfy the "appe"tit
des femmes enceintes."
L-. U t-sb
These are small rolls of a mineral preparation about 2.5 to 3.5
cm. in length, pointed at one end. They consist of chalk, which dis-
solves in acid, and a quantity of red clay left insoluble. From the
name Shaf , meaning suppository or clyster, they are probably used
for this purpose.
Gil-i-makhdum (Teh.); Tukhm-makhtum (Punj.).
Field 246; 86 (Iraq).
These are two forms of sigillated earth, sealed clay or Lemnian
earth. The sample from Tehran is a rounded cake of light reddish
clay with white specks, 2 cm. in diameter and 1.5 cm. thick; on the
upper portion there is a depression in the center made by a stamp.
The clay is smooth to the touch and contains no carbonate of lime.
For use in medicine it is moistened with water and applied to purulent
The samples from Iraq are circular lumps of white clay of a
larger size, 3.2 cm. in diameter and 1.2 cm. thick. Each is marked
above by three thumb impressions, with checkered lines below.
The powdered clay is used as a desiccant for dusting abraded surfaces.
The literature on the Sacred Sealed Earth of Lemnos is very
extensive. The earth is described by Dioscorides (A.D. 40) and
Galen (A.D. 131-201), and was used in Europe until the 17th century.
An interesting account is given in Pomet's "Histoire des Bruges"
(1694), and perhaps the most recent review of the subject is "Terra
Sigillata: a Famous Medicament of Ancient Times," by C. J. S.
Thompson (1914). Laufer ("Geophagy," pp. 164-166) gives an
account of terra sigillata from Lemnos (cf. Armenian earth).
Other medicinal clays represented in the Field collection are:
Gil-i-berz (263), a cosmetic used to counteract excessive perspiration;
PLANTS AND DRUGS OF IRAN AND IRAQ 193
Gil-i-gazwin (247), a clay eaten by pregnant women; and Gil-i-
batuni (258), a siliceous powder used by painters.
The following is a list from other sources of edible and medicinal
clays met with in Iran and India.
Gil-i-gubrasi. Cyprus clay.
Gil-i-igritus. Cretan earth.
Gil-i-khurasani. Edible chalk.
Gil-i-misri or Karkooti. Egyptian earth or Nile mud taken
from bed of river.
Gil-i-shamus. Samian earth (according to Dioscorides the Greeks
used the earth of Samos as a means of stopping the vomiting
of blood Laufer, "Geophagy," p. 109).
Gil-i-zard. Yellow clay from Istanbul.
Chunniah (from China, lime). A soap-like, earthy substance
obtained from lakes near Halla, eaten by women of Sind.
The subject of eating clays is of ethnological as well as medicinal
interest. An attempt to deal with the subject from these points of
view will be found in a paper on "Earth-eating and the Earth-eating
Habit in India," by D. Hooper and H. H. Mann (Mem. Asiatic
Soc. Bengal, Calcutta, 1906, pp. 240-270).
Sodium carbonate (crude)
Namak, Qalyab (Teh.) ; washing soda.
This is a white, alkaline salt, either thrown up as an efflorescent
deposit on the soil (Sajji mati), or prepared from the ashes of marine
plants. It consists of sodium carbonate, containing much chloride
and sulphate of sodium, and insoluble matter.
Gugird-i-zard, Gugird-i-akhmar (Teh.) ; Gogut (Yark.) ; Gandhak
Field 218, 241; W.H.M.M. 150731.
Yellow sulphur in powder and crystalline masses is said to come
from the Mount Demavend district in Iran. Sulphur ointment is
used for skin complaints and for secondary syphilis (H.F.).
DRUGS OF ANIMAL ORIGIN
Nummulites sp. (Foraminifera)
'Adasu '1-mulk, Shahdanej-i-'adasi (Teh.); Sang-i-shadnaj (Afg.);
Shudnuj udsee (Ar.); Satanj, Samgh nadh (Punj.).
Field 158; W.H.M.M. 150852.
These are small, lens-shaped or button-shaped fossils, varying
from 4 to 12 mm. in diameter. The name Adas refers to the seeds
of the lentil, Lens esculenta, which the smaller stones resemble.
They consist principally of calcium carbonate and act as an antacid.
According to Honigberger the hakims administer the powdered fossils
for eye diseases and for ulcers. On the authority of the "Doctrine
of Signatures" these and other fossils were administered in former
days on account of their resemblance to the products of disease.
Powdered with Punica Granatum L. and Sumaqh-i-shah, they are
applied to painful gums (H.F.).
Corallium rubrum Lam. (Anthozoa)
Shakhah-i-marjan (Teh.); Sang-i-marjan (Hind.); Bussud (Ar.);
Prabala (Sans.) ; red or gem coral.
Field 169; W.H.M.M. 150879.
Coral is obtained from the Red Sea, Persian Gulf, and Arabian
coast. It is formed by coral polyps, which have the power of taking
up lime from sea water and building this into a skeleton. Coral,
therefore, consists principally of calcium carbonate. Both the red
coral and the organ-pipe coral (Tubipora) are used in medicine; they
are reduced to powder and given as a tonic, and to check vomiting
and acidity resulting from dyspepsia and biliousness.
Cidaris sp. (Echinoidea)
Hajaru'l-yahud, Sang-i-yahuda (Pers.); Pathar-ka-ber (Hind.);
Dugre bore (Bom.); Lapis jadaicus (Ph. Pers.); Jews' stone.
This fossil echinoid consists of the petrified spines of a sea urchin,
found in the Jurassic deposits of the Salt Range, Punjab. Extrava-
gant ideas prevail as to the origin of these fossils, which some suppose
PLANTS AND DRUGS OF IRAN AND IRAQ 195
to be petrified fruits; the name they bear in Delhi, Pathar-ka-ber,
signifies the fruits or stones of the jujube tree. The stones are oval,
pointed at both ends, 3.5 cm. long and 2 cm. in diameter. They
contain 95 per cent of calcium carbonate. These stones are sold all
over northern India, Iran, Syria, and Palestine. They are said to be
useful for healing wounds, and, internally, for flatulence and diarrhea.
Cypraea moneta L. (Gastropoda)
Sadaf, Wuda (Ar.); Khar mahra (Pers.); Cowri, Sipi (Hind.);
These well-known porcelaneous shells from the Mediterranean
and Persian Gulf are used throughout the East for making ornaments,
and at one time were a means of barter or medium of exchange.
They consist chiefly of calcium carbonate, and in medicine are used
as an antacid, alterative, and expectorant. The shells also serve as
charms against the Evil Eye for babies, horses, and machines (H. F.).
Larinus maculatus Fald. (Coleoptera)
Yielding Treliala manna; described under the name of the host-
plant, Echinops persicus.
Bee's wax (Hymenoptera, Apoidea)
Mum (Teh.); Moma (Hind.); Cera alba; white wax.
Field 216, 260.
White wax is sold in the shops and used for plasters and ointments.
"Camphor candle" (Mum-i-kafuri) is a specimen of a crudely
made wax candle in the composition of which camphor has been in-
corporated to diffuse a pleasant odor when burning.
Bombyx fortunatus Hutton (Lepidoptera)
,v-ij ft\ 4J~o
\\. --S. -7
Abrisham, Pilah abrisham (Teh.); Pileh, cocoon; Resham,
silk; Pat (Beng.) ; Resham-ki-keri (Duk.) ; cocoons of the silk moth.
The cocoons of the silk moth or silk worm are said to be styptic
and tonic, and are generally administered with other astringents.
196 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. IX
Burnt, the ashes are given internally in profuse menstruation and
Under the name of Abrlsham, white silk, cut into small pieces,
is given in Ajmere as a remedy for impotence (Irvine).
Otoliths of fish (Percomorphi, Sciaenidae)
Sang-i-sar-i-mahT (from Sang, "a stone"; Sar, "a head"; Mahi,
"fish"; an allusion to the belief among the natives that the stone is
found in the head of a fish), "poa teeth" (Ind.).
Otoliths are semi-crystalline bodies composed of carbonate of
lime, found in the ear sacs of fish. These concretions are sold in
Delhi and other cities in northern India. They resemble in color
and form the human incisor teeth, being white and smooth, and
having both surfaces convex. The concretions are powdered and
given for urinary diseases, chiefly in the suppression and retention
of urine (Khory).
Tortoise eggs (Testudo horsfieldii Grey and T. graeca. Chelonia)
Tukhm-i-lak-pusht, "eggs of the hard-backed one" (Teh.);
Sur-kuk (Afg.); Lek-poshte (Schl.); tortoise eggs.
These are globular, orange-colored, waxy bodies, 2 cm. across,
disintegrating in water, leaving a yellowish powder, insoluble, with
oily globules on the surface. Eggs of the tortoise are used by the
Bruhies (Afghanistan) whipped up with water and smeared over the
pustules as a remedy to prevent pitting from smallpox (Bellew).
In Assam the eggs are also eaten and used medicinally. The eggs
and flesh are said to be aphrodisiac. People of the Makran coast
(Baluchistan) have a custom of tying a piece of turtle shell to any
animal having a stoppage of urine.
Milk curds from Bos indicus (Ruminantia)
Qar-i-qurut (Teh.); Karut, Krut (Afg.); dried oxygal, hardened
Qurut or Karut occurs in round balls or cakes of varying shapes
made from the milk of cows, buffaloes, or goats. It is usually
PLANTS AND DRUGS OF IRAN AND IRAQ 197
obtained by evaporating sour buttermilk, pressing out the whey in
bags, by hand, and drying the solid curd in the sun. These cakes
are used by Afghans and residents of the black tents of Helmand,
who carry them on their tours as a favorite article of diet. When
required, the cakes are mixed with water, brinjal fruits and bread
added; the whole forms an admirable dish. The Qar-i-qurut from
Tehran is a blackish brown mass, acidulous and salty to the taste,
largely soluble in water; it is very similar to meat extracts sold in
America and Europe. The preparation is used as a soup following
vermifuge treatment (H.F.).
Kashk Kashk (Kurd.).
These are balls of casein, butter, and salt, prepared from milk.
They probably represent the "Pleasant Food" (Khushk horak)
flavored with asafoetida, used in Afghanistan (Aitchison).
Camel's flesh, dried from Camelus dromedarius L.; single-humped
or Arabian camel
Kuhan-i-shutur (Teh.); camel's hump.
The specimen is a piece of yellowish white, dried, fibrous flesh
from the hump of a camel. This peculiar drug is directed to be mixed
with fat and made into an ointment for piles. The Tatars use the
hump cut into slices, which, placed in tea, serve the purpose of butter.
Camel's meat is eaten by Greeks and Iranis; the flesh of the young
dromedary is considered by Arabs to be equal to veal. Ainslie
states that the rennet of the camel, which the Iranis term Punir-
mayeh-shutur, is placed among their aphrodisiacs; Honigberger
calls the substance Camelinum coagulum and says it is highly
esteemed by Arabian doctors.
Bezoar stones from Capra aegagrus Gmel. ; Persian wild goat
Padzahr (Pers.); Fadzehre heyvani (Schl.); Gorochan (Hind.);
The bezoar stone appears to have been first used as a medicine by
the Arabian physician Avicenna. Razis in his "Continens" describes
198 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. IX
it fully, and extols its good qualities as an alexipharmic. Linschoten
devotes a chapter to the description of "Bezar stones and other
stones good against poyson" and quotes da Orta's account of the
origin of this biliary concretion which came from Iran. Similar
stones are obtained from the cow, goat, wild boar, antelope, porcu-
pine, and camel. That obtained from the camel is the cheapest, but
that from the Persian wild goat is considered the most efficacious.
The specimen cited came from Shiraz.
Mamlz, Mamlz-i-kirl (Teh.).
Field 224; W.H.M.M. 150735.
The specimens consist of lumps of fecal matter, from 1 to 1.5 cm.
across. Broken and examined with a lens, they were seen to be
composed principally of vegetable debris. This is unusual as a
drug, and not recorded in ordinary medical works of the East, but
in Tehran is said to be rubbed on the chest for bronchitis.
Sheep's stomach, dried
Mayah-i-barrah (Isf.); sheep's stomach.
Field 8 (Isf.).
This specimen is a dried portion of a sheep's stomach, con-
taining the active principle of the gastric juice. The name Mayah
refers to ferment, leaven or rennet, and Panir mayeh, "cheese pro-
ducer." Rennet for preparing cheese is also obtained in the East
from the stomach of hare, dog, or pig, as well as from that of the
sheep and calf.
Mumiyai, Mumiya (Pers.); Silajit (Hind.); Silajatu, "rock
sweat" (Sans.); Khatmolt, Mashana churro (Bal.); Asphaltum
Persicum; Asphaltum Punjabinum; Osteocolla (Lat.).
This is one of the most ancient medicines of Iran and northern
India, and there has been considerable confusion regarding its origin
and nature. There is no doubt that it was early associated with
dead or embalmed bodies from Egyptian tombs, which were used
PLANTS AND DRUGS OF IRAN AND IRAQ 199
in medicine in Europe in the Middle Ages, though often subject to
adulteration (Budge, Sir E. A. W., "Mummy: Chapters on Egyptian
Funereal Archaeology," London, 1893).
Another animal source has been found in the Khatmolt of Balu-
chistan, which contained a large proportion of urea. This confirms
the direct evidence of a local medical dictionary that "Mummiai is
the inspissated urine of the mountain goat."
The third source of Mummy is the exudation of a bituminous
substance from a rock; the Indian name Silajit or "rock sweat" ex-
presses the phenomenon. The Mumiai obtained as a secretion from
the Mummy mountain of Iran has been described by Chardin,
Kampfer, Ouseley, Le Brun, and other travelers, and these all point
to the fact that the substance is a variety of bitumen, asphalt, or
allied hydrocarbon. R. Seligmann of Vienna published a pamphlet
containing extracts from rare Persian manuscripts regarding this
substance. At one time the King of Persia collected the product
from one of the mountains near Behbeban and Darab, enclosed it
in silver boxes, and distributed it with great care to those in need of
this wonderful medicine.
Samples of Mumiai received lately in the Wellcome Historical
Medical Museum are those of a variety of asphalt or mineral pitch.
Some are black, soft, and sticky, and may be drawn out into long
threads, while other samples are black, hard, and brittle.
In the light of modern therapeutics we may anticipate a decline
in the reputation of Mumiai of Iran and the Silajit of India, and, like
the Hiraceum of the Cape of Good Hope, these once famous remedies
will soon be relegated to medicines of a past age.
Cuttle fish bone from Sepia officinalis L. (Cephalopoda)
Kaf-i-darya, "foam of the waters" (Ar.); Samudraphena (Sans.);
Os Sepiae, cuttle fish bone.
Field 85A; W.H.M.M. 150837.
Cuttle fish bone is the internal skeleton of the common cuttle or
squid; it is used as a polishing material, and reduced to powder is
employed in medicine as an antacid. It is often brought by return-
ing pilgrims from Mecca, and hence is looked upon as a very important
medicine. The Indian cuttle fish bone has the following composi-
tion: calcium carbonate 87.66, calcium sulphate 0.76, organic matter
and water 9.3, iron oxide and alumina 0.46, magnesia and alkalis
1.7, silica 0.1, and phosphoric anhydride 0.02, in 100 parts.
SOME PRESCRIPTIONS FROM ISFAHAN, IRAN
Mix the above herbs in each remedy, add some water, and boil.
Distil and drink.
PLANTS AND DRUGS OF IRAN AND IRAQ 201
Ab-i-gishmz coriander water
Maghze hastah-i-albalu sour cherry kernel
Powder the roots of the above herbs and apply by rubbing over
the affected area.
' * I ' S* " . '
PLEURISY AND PNEUMONIA
Luabe behdunah juice of quince
Mum-i-kafuri camphorated wax
Roghan-i-badam almond oil
Mix some of each and apply by rubbing on affected parts.
202 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. IX
CHEST AND STOMACH PAINS
jujube 5 pieces
seed of quince 2 misqals
flowers of violet 2 misqals
almond oil 2 misqals
gum arabic 2 misqals
sebestan 5 pieces
white sugar 2 misqals
felon wort 2 misqals
seed of quince
Mix, boil, and add half a misqal of almond oil (after distillation)
in each of the above two remedies.
PLANTS AND DRUGS OF IRAN AND IRAQ
orange ^ misqal
root of marshmallow
flower 2 misqals
felon wort 2 misqals
white sugar 2 misqals
almond oil 2 misqals
wild sorrel */ misqal
topaz 2 nukhuds
For bleeding feces; after boiling add almond oil and take
Rishah-i-anjabar* root of snakeweed
Heat slightly and rub on affected area.
* Root of snakeweed (Euphorbia pilulifera), Australian snakeweed or cat's
hair; employed in asthma, hay fever, coryza, and other respiratory infections, and
also in angina pectoris.
204 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. IX
mixture of aloes, amber,
sandal wood, and gum
Mix, boil, and take internally.
Maghze galam gao
Mix the constituents, heat, and apply to entire body.
yoke of egg
hump of camel
PLANTS AND DRUGS OF IRAN AND IRAQ 205
Aksir-i-turki Asiatic calamus
Tarrah khushk dried leek
These are burned under the patient's feet.
Mazu-i-sabz green gallnut
Zaj-u-safid white alum
The gallnut is ground and sprinkled on the wound. The alum is
rubbed into the wound.
206 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. IX
Shazenj blackish, red colored, fragile
stone often used medicinally
Rishah-i-marjan root of coral
Grind well, add some spider web, and apply to nose. Application
of ice water on the head, forehead, or the hands is also highly recom-
PLANTS AND DRUGS OF IRAN AND IRAQ
sour cherry kernel
Mix the ingredients, boil until reduced to 5 misqals of sugar, and
208 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. IX
EXCESSIVE BLEEDING DURING MENSTRUATION
Mazu-i-surkhtah burned oakapple
Khun-i-siyavash dragon's blood
Barg-i-murd leaf of myrtle
Pust-i-anar peel of pomegranate
Dip a woollen rope into the boiled pomegranate peel; pound the
herbs, and into this dip the soaked woolen rope; apply to the clitoris
until all the blood has been absorbed.
PLANTS AND DRUGS OF IRAN AND IRAQ 209
DELAYED MENSTRUAL PERIOD
Abhil seed of juniper berries 2 misqals
Ratiyanah fennel 2 misqals
Zahrah gao cow's liver 2 misqals
Tukhm-i-murd ant seed 2 misqals
Pound the ingredients, dip a wet, woolen cloth into the mixture
and apply internally.
Abhil seed of juniper berries
Pust-i-mar snake skin
After the above medicine is placed on the fire, the woman squats
over the fumes until the abortion takes place.
210 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. IX
(a) Anghoreh berry
Swallow daily one-half nukhud of the prepared pill.
(6) Sunbi Ulagh hoof of donkey
Grind it, spread on a cloth, and use as an enema. The foregoing
should be used three days after menstruation has begun. Men take
^> i*Sf*? '^
(a) Roghan-i-badam almond oil
Drink 4 misqals of the oil mixed with 2 cups of hot water. This
makes delivery very easy.
(6) Mishk musk
Nabat crystallized sugar
Mix some of each; prepare as tea and drink. The mother must
be attended by an intelligent nurse.
212 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. IX
Tudri surkhu safid
white and red bahman
nut resembling pistachio
Mix the ingredients with honey and eat 2 misqals before inter-
PLANTS AND DRUGS OF IRAN AND IRAQ
kernel of garland
Boil the ingredients and drink.
Mix well and apply externally.
pit of sour cherry
214 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. IX
Roghan-i-bazralbenock sowing seed oil
Roghan-i-kirdu walnut oil
Mix well and apply externally.
Roghan-i-mum wax oil
Zarda tukhm-i-murgh yoke of egg
Mix some of each, warm, and place over the fracture. After the
fracture is reduced, apply a piece of wood to keep the limb straight,
i.e. a splint.
PLANTS AND DRUGS OF IRAN AND IRAQ 215
Kundur Juniper gum
Roghan-i-gul-i-surkh oil of red rose
Mix well and rub into scalp.
Maghze kala kusfand sheep's brain
Samgh Arabi gum arabic
Roghan-i-ziatun olive oil
Mix and apply to body. For men and especially for women.
^ r - . ,
rt ' m * <
216 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. IX
No true remedy.
Make a deep incision with a knife and place a piece of burning
charcoal in the open wound.
ALPHABETICAL LIST OF NATIVE NAMES
WITH LATIN EQUIVALENTS
Aabb-el-harar (Teh.) Juniper us excelsa Bieb.
Abhil (Teh.) Juniperus excelsa Bieb.
Abir (Pers.) Crocus sativus L.
Ab-i-sham (Teh.) Zataria multiflora Boiss.
Abrlsham (Teh.) Bombyx fortunatus Hutton
Abu Suwaif (Ar.) Hordeum sp.
Acoron (Gr.) Acorus Calamus L.
Adas (Turk.) Lens esculenta Moench (also p. 194)
'Adas-i-talkh (Teh.) Indigofera Roxburghii Jaume
Adas mar (Bagh.) Lens esculenta Moench
'Adasu '1-mulk (Teh.) Nummulites sp.
Adhafir-aj-jian (Iraq) Astragalus hamosus L.
Adhafir-ash-shaitan (Iraq) Astragalus hamosus L.
Affaz (Teh.) Quercus infectoria Olivier
Afsant-el-bahara (Ar.) Artemisia maritima L.
Afsantm (Teh.) Artemisia vulgaris L.
Afsantln-i-hindi (Ar.) Artemisia vulgaris L.
Afs-el-batum (Tri.) Pistacia Khinjuk Stocks
Afsin (Teh.) Zataria multiflora Boiss.
Aftab gardan (Teh.) Helianthus annuus L.
Aftimun Cuscuta planifolia Ten. and C. hyalina Roth
Afyun (Iraq) Papaver somniferum L.
Agalactie (Schl.) Lecanora esculenta Eversm.
Agirgarha (Teh., Isf.) Anacyclus Pyrethrum DC.
Ajees-aafs (Ar.) Quercus infectoria Olivier
'Ajlbah (Punj.) Triticum vulgare Vill.
Ajibak Trtticum sp.
Ajll-i-turki (Teh.) Acorus Calamus L.
Ajmud (Hind.) Apium graveolens L.
Ajowan (Hind.) Carum copticum Benth. & Hook.
Ajwain (Hind.) Carum copticum Benth. & Hook.
Ajwain-ka-phul (Ind.) See Carum copticum Benth. & Hook.
Akalkara (Hind.) Anacyclus Pyrethrum DC.
Akar (Bal.) Sesbania aculeata Poir.
Aketi (Ham.) Astragalus hamosus L.
Akhrot (Hind.) Juglans regia L.
Aksir-i-turki (Teh.) Acorus Calamus L.
Akulla (Ar.) Commiphora opobalsamum Kunth
Alaf-khareg (Afg.) Crataegus orientalis Bieb.
Alashi (Ind.) Linum usitatissimum L.
Alfabaca (Port.) Ocimum Basilicum L.
Al-kanna (Ar.) See Onosma echioides L.
Alkikenji (Ar.) Physalis Alkekengi L.
Alsi (Ind.) Linum usitatissimum L.
Alu (Teh.) Prunus institia L. var. bokharensis
Alu-bokhara (Teh.) Prunus institia L. var. bokharensis
Alucha (Hind.) Prunus domestica L. var. Juliana
Aluchah (Teh.) Prunus domestica L. var. Juliana
Ambari (Duk.) Hibiscus cannabinus L.
Amlaj (Ar.) Phyllanthus Emblica L.
Amla morabba (Turk.) Phyllanthus Emblica L.
218 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. IX
Ammeos (Ph. Pers.) Carum copticum Benth. & Hook.
Amulah-i-suftah (Teh.) Phyllanthus Emblica L.
Amulah-mugashshar (Isf.) Phyllanthus Emblica L.
Andiz otu (Turk.) Inula Helenium L.
Anduz (Ham.) Inula Helenium L.
Anghinar (Turk.) Cynara Scolymus L.
Angul Drakh (Ind.) Vitis vinifera L.
Angum (Teh.) Acacia Senegal Willd.
Angur (Hind.) Vitis vinifera L.
Angur-i-kauli or kawali
(Iraq, Pers.) Loranthus Grewinkii Boiss. & Bunge
Anila-ghnaka (Sans.) Terminalia bellerica Roxb.
Anisun (Teh.) Pimpinella Anisum L.
Anitum (Yunani) Peucedanum graveolens Benth. & Hook.
Anjabar-i-rumi (Pers.) Polygonum Bistorta L.
Anjar (Iraq) Prunus domestica L. var. Juliana
Annee (Fr.) Inula Helenium L.
Antchibun (Tab.) Pimpinella Anisum L.
Anzarut (Ar.) Astragalus fasciculaefolius Boiss.
Aola amla (Hind.) Phyllanthus Emblica L.
Arab qosi (Turk.) Glossostemon Bruguieri Desf.
Arak-badiani (Schl.) Pimpinella Anisum L.
Arak Hail (Bagh.) Elettaria Cardamomum Maton.
Arakta chandana (Sans.) Pterocarpus santalinus L.
Ardi-shauki (Ar.) Cynara Scolymus L.
Arjan (Hind.) Antimonium Sulphidum
Arpa (Turk.) Hordeum sp.
Arwah-i-kunjad (Pers.) Sesamum indicum L.
Arzan (Pers.) Panicum miliaceum L.
Asal-alsus Glycyrrhiza glabra L.
Asalia (Bom.) Lepidium sativum L.
Asarun (Teh.) Asarum europaeum L.
Asbaghul (Pers.) Plantago ovata Forsk.
Asbarg (Iran) Delphinium Zalil Ait. & Hemsl.
Aschna (Ar.) See Roccella Montagnei B61.
Asfar-i-makkl (Teh.) Cymbopogon Schoenanthus Spreng.
Asgandh (Hind., Guz.) Withania somnifera Dunal
Asil-a-krasb (Afg.) Apium graveolens L.
Aspand (Kurd.) Peganum Harmala L.
Asphaltum Persicum Mummy
Asphaltum Punjabinum Mummy
Aspust (Bal.) Medicago saliva L.
Aswarg (Iran) Delphinium Zalil Ait. & Hemsl.
Atasi (Ind.) Linum usitatissimum L.
Atractus (Gr.) Carthamus tinctorius L.
Avartin (Sans.) Helicteres Isora L.
Azaraki (Ind.) Strychnos Nux Vomica L.
Azkar (Teh.) Cymbopogon Schoenanthus Spreng.
Baberang (Hind.) Embelia Ribes Burm.
Babuna Anthemis Wiedemanniana Fisch. & Mey.
Babunah (Teh.) Matricaria Chamomilla L.
Babunaj Anthemis Wiedemanniana Fisch. & Mey.
Babunaj (Pers.) Matricaria Chamomilla L.
Bach (Punj.) Acorus Calamus L.
Badam-i-talkh (Teh.) Prunus Amygdalus Stokes var. amara Baill.
PLANTS AND DRUGS OF IRAN AND IRAQ 219
Badian (Pers.) See Foeniculum vulgare Mill.
Badian (Ar.) See Pimpinella Anisum L.
Badian-i-rumi (Teh.) Pimpinella Anisum L.
Bad-i-ranjah buyah (Teh.) Dracocephalum Moldavica L.
Bad-i-ranjah-buyah (Teh.) Asperugo procumbens L.
Badiyan-i-khata'i (Pers.) Illicium verum Hook. f.
Badiyan-i-sabz (Teh., Ham.) Foeniculum vulgare Mill.
Badrandj-boia See Asperugo procumbens L.
Badrendj-bou-yih (Schl.) Dracocephalum Moldavica L.
Badrish-bu (Tab.) Dracocephalum Moldavica L.
Badroudge ibieze (Schl.) Ocimum canum Sims
Badyan (Afg.) Foeniculum vulgare Mill.
Baghala (Iraq) Vicia Faba L.
Bahar-i-naranj (Teh.) Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck
Bahman-i-p!ch (Teh.).. Helicleres Isora L.
Baibun (Mosul) Matricaria Chamomilla L.
Bajindak (Afg., Hind.) Lepidium Draba L.
Bakayan (Hind.) Melia Azedarach L.
Bakla (Hind.) Vicia Faba L.
Baladur (Teh., Isf.) Semecarpus Anacardium L.
Balasan (Ar.) Commiphora opobalsamum Kunth
Balchar (Afg.) Nardostachys Jatamansi DC.
Balera (Hind.) Terminalia bellerica Roxb.
Balilah (Teh., Isf.) Terminalia bellerica Roxb.
Balingu (Ham.) Lallemantia Royleana Benth.
Balingu shahrl (Teh.) Lallemantia ibirica F. & M.
Balingu-shirazI (Teh.) Lallemantia Royleana Benth.
Balut (Teh.) Quercus persica Jaub. & Spach
Bango (Port.) Hyoscyamus reticulatus L.
Banj barri (Iraq) Hyoscyamus reticulatus L.
Banklent (Bal.) Vicia Faba L.
Banoi Anthemis Wiedemanniana Fisch. & Mey
Bans lochan (Hind.) Bambusa arundinacea L.
Baphalli (Hind.) Corchorus olitorius L.
Baqilla (Turk.) Vicia Faba L.
Baqlah (Turk.) Vicia Faba L.
Barambi (Hind.) Taxus baccata L.
Barbati (Beng.) Vigna Catjang Walp.
Bardane (Teh.) Arctium Lappa L.
Barg-i-gav-zaban (Teh.) Echium sericeum Vahl
Barg-i-hind Iran (Teh.) Butea frondosa Roxb.
Barg-i-livas (Isf.) Rheum Ribes L.
Barg-i-murd (Teh.) Myrtus communis L.
Barg-i-naranj (Isf.) Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck
Barg-i-quitaran (Teh.) Chrozophora verbascifolia Juss.
Barg-i-sadhaj (Teh.) Cinnamomum Cassia Blume
Barg-i-unnab (Teh.) Zizyphus vulgaris L.
Barg tiol (Teh.) Tilia rubra DC.
Barhang (Teh.) Plantago major L.
Barhi Phoenix dactylifera L.
Barljah (Teh.) Ferula galbaniflua Boiss.
Bar-i-tang (Bal.) Plantago major L.
Bariz (Teh.) Ferula galbaniflua Boiss.
Barmakiya (Pers.) Vetiveria zizanioides Stapf
Bar ranjubah (Teh.) Asperugo procumbens L.
220 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. IX
Barsim (Iraq) Trifolium alexandrinum L.
Baryadh dari (Turk.) Sorghum vulgare Pers.
Basal (Ar.) Allium Cepa L.
Basarak Katrin (Pers.) Linum usitatissimum L.
Basfaij (Ind. bazaars) Polypodium vulgare L.
Bas-fayij (Teh.) Polypodium vulgare L.
Basilikon Kuminon (Gr.) Carum copticum Benth. & Hook.
Bazbaz (Pers.) Myristica fragrans Houtt.
Baz-i-tamar-hindi (Ar.) Tamarindus indica L.
Bazrak (Ham.) Linum usitatissimum L.
Bazr-el-fujl (Ar.) Raphanus sativus L.
Bazr-i-banj (Teh., Ham.) Hyoscyamus reticulatus L.
Bazr ul Kattan (Achundow) Linum usitatissimum L.
Bazrul khasa (Ar.) Lactuca sativa L.
Bdellium (Hind.) Commiphora Mukul Engl.
Bedan jir Ricinus communis L.
Bekh (Ait.) Gypsophila paniculata L.
Bekh-i-sumbul (Pers.) Nardostachys Jatamansi DC.
Bekh-sus Glycyrrhiza glabra L.
Benj (Ar.) Hyoscyamus reticulatus L.
Ber (Hind.) Zizyphus vulgaris L.
Berengue Kaboii (Schl.) . . .Embelia Ribes Burm.
Berij sadri Gilan (Teh.) Oryza sativa L.
Bernooty (Iraq) See Nicotiana Tabacum L. and N. rustica L.
Bhela (Hind.) Semecarpus Anacardium L.
Bhilava (Hind.) Semecarpus Anacardium L.
Bibi (Bal.) Pyrus Cydonia L.
Bid-anjubin (Afg.) Salix fragilis L.
Bide Knecht (Achundow) Salix fragilis L.
Bidend jireh khatai Croton Tiglium L.
Bld-khisht (Teh.) Salix fragilis L.
Bihidana (Pers.) Pyrus Cydonia L.
Bikh-anjubaz (Punj.) Polygonum Bistorta L.
Bikh-i-banafshah (Teh.) Iris spuria Pall.
Blkh-i-hallmun (Teh.) Asparagus officinalis L.
Blkh-i-shankaran (Isf.) Conium maculatum L.
Bikh-i-wala (Pers.) Vetiveria zizanioides Stapf
Bin-i-talkh (Isf.) Indigofera Roxburghii Jaume
Biranj mishk Calamintha graveolens Benth.
Birinjasaf (Ind. bazaars) Achillea Santolina L.
Birinj-i-kabuli (Teh., Isf.) Embelia Ribes Burm.
Birinj-i-sadri (Teh.) Oryza sativa L.
Bizousha dishi and erkek (Turk.).. .Plantago major L.
Bizr dinbil (Iraq) Plantago major L.
Bizre Kattane (Schl.) Linum usitatissimum L.
Bol (Hind., Bom.) Commiphora Molmol Engl.
Bol shiah (Hind.) Aloe Perryi Baker
Bonduk-i-hindi (Ar.) Caesalpinia Bonducella Roxb.
Bon tamaku (Ar.) Verbascum Thapsus L.
Bughdai (Turk.) Triticum sp.
Bui madaran (Punj.) Achillea Santolina L.
Bundaq (Iraq) Corylus Colurna L.
Buqnaq (Teh.) Glossostemon Bruguieri Desf.
Burghul (Kurd.) Triticum durum Desf. (p 182)
Buski (Bal.) Lepidium Draba L.
PLANTS AND DRUGS OF IRAN AND IRAQ 221
Bussud (Ar.) Corallium rubrum Lam.
Butinak (Teh.) Saussurea Lappa C. B. Clarke
Buzghanj (Ham., Isf.) Pistacia Khinjuk Stocks
Buzldan (Ham., Teh.) Withania somnifera Dunal
Buzz-ul-karaphs (Ar.) Apium graveolens L.
C'a (N. Chin.) Thea sinensis L.
Cai (Russian) Thea sinensis L.
Camphire (Syr.) Lawsonia alba Lam.
Cha (Hind.) Thea sinensis L.
Chab roman (Bagh.) Punica Granatum L.
Chagzl (Iraq) Juglans regia L.
Chahar tankhush (Teh.) Pistacia integerrima Stew.
Chahar-tukhmah (i.e. four seeds). . .Plantago major, Alyssum campestre, Cordia
Myxa, Pyrus Cydonia (p. 98)
Cha'l sabz (Teh.) Thea sinensis L.
Chakha-khoul (Turk.) Trachydium Lehmanni Benth.
Chaltuk (Kurd.) Oryza saliva L.
Ghana (Hind.) Cicer arietinum L.
Charmaghy (Pers.) Juglans regia L.
Chasm (Ham., Teh.) Cassia Absus L.
Chasm-i-khurus (Pers.) Abrus precatorius L.
Chatlanguch (Ham.) Pistacia integerrima Stew.
Chighaghole metri (Schl.) Trachydium Lehmanni Benth.
China (Hind., Sans.) Panicum miliaceum L.
Chinai-katha (Bom.) Uncaria Gambler Roxb.
Chini (Chin.) See Saccharum officinarum L.
Chiresh Eremurus Aucherianus Boiss.
Chir zadi (Schl.) Lecanora esculenta Eversm.
Chitra (Bom.)... Plumbago rosea L.
Chitrak (Hind.) Plumbago rosea L.
Chitraka (Sans.) Plumbago rosea L.
Chob-i-kut (Afg.) Saussurea Lappa C. B. Clarke
Chota gokhru (Hind.) Tribulus terrestris L.
Chowli (Hind.) Vigna Catjang Walp.
Chub Chini (Ind. bazaars) Smilax China L. and S. glabra Roxb.
Chughak Prosopis Stephaniana Kunth
Chuk-andar (Hind.) Beta vulgaris L.
Chukundar (Turk.) Beta vulgaris L.
Chuli (Botes) Prunus Armeniaca L.
Chunniah Sigillated Earth
Costum amarum (Ph. Pers.) Saussurea Lappa C. B. Clarke
Cowri (Hind.) Cypraea moneta L.
Cummun (Syr.) Cuminum Cyminum L.
Cuscuta (Lat.) Cuscuta planifolia Ten. and C. hyalina Roth
Dahan-bastah (Teh.) Zanthoxylum Rhetsa DC.
Dahan bastah-baz (Teh.) Zanthoxylum Rhetsa DC.
Dairi Phoenix dactylifera L.
Dalik (Ar.) Rosa hemisphaerica Herm.
Dall (Ind. bazaars) Lens esculenta Moench
Damaverah (Ham.) Rosa hemisphaerica Herm.
Dam-el-akhwain (Ar.) Dracaena Cinnabari Balf.
Dam-i-albalu (Teh.) Prunus Cerasus L.
Daramanah (Teh.) Artemisia maritima L.
Darasini (Ar.) Cinnamomum Cassia Blume
222 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. IX
Dar-chlm (Isf.) Cinnamomum Cassia Blume
Dari (Hind.) Sorghum vulgare Pers.
Darunaj-i-akrabi (Teh., Ham.) Doronicum Pardalianches L.
Darvunedge eghrebi (Schl.) Doronicum Pardalianches L.
Datura (Hind.) Datura Stramonium L.
Davalah (Ham.) Roccella Montagnei Bel.
Dawalak (Achundow) See Roccella Montagnei B61.
Dhanya (Hind.) Coriandrum sativum L.
Dhupa Boswellia Carterii Bird.
Dhurah (Ar.) Sorghum vulgare Pers.
Dibk (Ar.) Loranthus Greunnkii Boiss. & Bunge
Digal Phoenix dactylifera L.
Digh-dighane (Isf.) Celtis australis L.
Djusha (Pers.) Thymus Serpyllum L.
Doronic (Gr.) Doronicum Pardalianches L.
Doronicum Graeci (Ph. Pers.) Doronicum Pardalianches L.
Drakh (Hind.) Vitis vinifera L.
Draksha (Sans.) Vitis vinifera L.
Dudhi (Ind. bazaars) See Citrullus vulgaris Schrad.
Dugre bore (Bom.) Cidaris sp.
Dukhn (Iraq) Panicum miliaceum L.
Dulm-ul-hasak See Tribulus terrestris L.
Dza (Chin.) Thea sinensis L.
Ela (Sans.) Amomum subulatum Roxb.
El-sabuniyeh (Ar.) Gypsophila paniculata L.
Enula Campana (Med. Lat.) Inula Helenium L.
Epitymon (Gr.) See Cuscuta planifolia Ten. & C. hyalina Roth
Erok Chatma (Achundow) Althaea ficifolia Cav.
Erok Chatma (Bagh.) Althaea rosea L. (p. 83)
Erok Hail (Bagh.) Elettaria Cardamomum Maton.
Erok orab kuzzi (Iraq) Glossostemon Bruguieri Desf.
Erva dos (Dymock) Pimpinella Anisum L.
Fadzehre heyvani (Schl.) Copra aegagrus Gmel.
Faranj mishk Calamintha graveolens Benth.
Fasuliyah (Iraq) Phaseolus vulgaris L.
Filfil ahmer (Ar.) Capsicum frutescens L.
Filfil-i-surkh (Teh.) Capsicum frutescens L.
Filfil muyeh (Teh.) Capsicum frutescens L.
Findak (Hind.) Corylus Colurna L.
Findaq (Iraq) Corylus Colurna L.
Flores Punicae granati (Ph. Pers.). .Punica Granatum L.
Folusi (Yark.) Cassia Fistula L.
Foveh (?) (Ham.) Cirsium lanceolatum L.
FraiyOnah (Iraq) Tulipa montana Lindl.
Fudanaj (Ar.) Mentha sylvestris L.
Fufal (Teh., Ar.) Areca Catechu L.
Fulus (Isf.) Cassia Fistula L.
Fuluz mahi (Pers.) Strychnos Nux-vomica L.
Funduk (Teh.) Corylus Colurna L.
Futfuteh (Teh.) Adansonia digitata Juss.
Fuwwah (Ar.) Rubia Cordifolia L. and R. tinctorium L.
Gach-i-kashan (Teh.) Calcium Sulphate
Gaiwuzh (Turk.). Crataegus orientalis Bieb.
PLANTS AND DRUGS OF IRAN AND IRAQ 223
Gaizar (Iraq) Daucus Carota L.
Gajur (Hind.) Daucus Carota L.
Gandhak (Hind.) Sulphur
Gandum-abi (Teh.) Triticum vulgare Vill.
Gandum-i-safld (Teh.) Triticum vulgare Vill.
Ganim (Kurd.) Triticum sp.
Gaoshira (Teh.) Ferula galbaniflua Boiss.
Garabi (Hind.) Entada gigas (L.) Fawc. & Rendle
Gara tsochorek oti (Tab.) Nigella arvensis L. (p. 144)
Gara za'rak (Tab.) Lallemantia ibirica F. & M.
Garchak farang! (Teh.) .Ricinus communis L.
Gashnish (Turk.) Coriandrum sativum L.
Gaz-alafi (Teh.) Tamarix gallica L. var. mannifera Ehrenb.
Gaz-anjabin (Teh.) Tamarix gallica L. var. mannifera Ehrenb.
(also p. 162)
Gaz-i-khunsar (Teh.) Tamarix gallica L. var. mannifera Ehrenb.
Gaz-i-shakar Tamarix gallica L. var. mannifera Ehrenb.
Gehun (Hind.) Triticum vulgare Vill.
Gentar . . Phoenix dactylifera L.
Gharekum (Hind., Bom.) Polyporus officinalis Fries
Gharlgun (Teh.) Polyporus officinalis Fries
Gharikun (Ind. bazaars) Polyporus officinalis Fries
Ghariqun (Gr.) See Agaric
Ghartsche (Schl.) Agaric
Ghaza gouzanah (Teh.) Inula Helenium L.
Ghich (Ham.) Crataegus orientalis Bieb.
Ghodaoumche chirazi (Schl.) Alyssum campestre L.
Ghya ke bij (Hind.) Lagenaria vulgaris Ser.
Giafari (Schl.) Heracleum persidum Desf.
Giash mashi (Ham.) Quercus sp.
Gidar tamaku (Hind.) Verbascum Thapsus L.
Gila (Beng.) Entada gigas (L.) Fawc. & Rendle
Gil-i-arman! (Pers., Hind.) Armenian Earth
Gil-i-batuni Sigillated Earth
Gil-i-berz Sigillated Earth
Gil-i-daghistan (Isf., Teh.) Russian Clay
Gil-i-dschar (Achundow, Ph. Pers.). .Calcium Sulphate
Gil-i-gazwin Sigillated Earth
Gil-i-gubrasi Cyprus Clay, Sigillated Earth
Gil-i-igritus Cretan Earth, Sigillated Earth
Gil-i-khurasani Edible Chalk, Sigillated Earth
Gil-i-makhdum (Teh.) Sigillated Earth
Gil-i-misri Egyptian Earth, Sigillated Earth
Gil-i-sarshur (Teh., Afg.) Edible Clay
Gil-i-shamus Samian Earth, Sigillated Earth
Gil-i-zard Yellow Clay, Sigillated Earth
Gil-khwar (Laufer) See Armenian Earth
Gingelly (Hind.) Sesamum indicum L.
Girdu (Teh.) Juglans regia L.
Gizar Gia (Kurd.) Hordeum sp.
Glans Quercus Ballotae (Ph. Pers.). .Quercus persica Jaub. & Spach
Godumai (Tarn.) Triticum vulgare Vill.
Gogut (Yark.) Sulphur
Goi-zira (Tab.) Cuminum Cyminum L.
Gole himmicheh behar (Schl.) Calendula officinalis L.
224 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. IX
Goleper (Kerm.) Heracleum persicum Desf.
Gole zarde (Schl.) Rosa foetida Herm.
Gol tighol (Royle) Echinops persicus Stev.
Goondina (Pers.) Allium Cepa L.
Gora vach (Hind.) Acorus Calamus L.
Gorochan (Hind.) Capra aegagrus Gmel.
Goulpere (Boiss.) See Heracleum persicum Desf.
Govarikh (Bal.) Tulipa montana Lindl.
Goz (Turk.) Juglans regia L.
Gozharik (Kurd.) Citrullus Colocynthis Schrad.
Granati Cortex (Ph. Pers.) Punica Granatum L.
Guda (Hind.) See Saccharum officinarum L.
Gudamah (Teh.) Alyssum campestre L.
Gudamah-i-shahri (Teh.) Alyssum campestre L.
Gudamah-i-sherazi (Teh.) Alyssum campestre L.
Guetcha (Schl.) Calcium Sulphate
Gueza-elefi (Schl.) Quercus sp. (p. 162)
Gueze elefi (Teh.) Quercus Vallonea Kotschy
Guezmazedj (Teh.) Tamarix pentandra Pall.
Gugal (Hind.) Commiphora Mukul Engl.
Gugird-i-akhmar (Teh.) Sulphur
Gugird-i-zard (Teh.) Sulphur
Guize khouncar (Schl.) Tamarix pentandra Pall.
Gujar (Bom.) Astragalus fasciculaefolius Boiss.
Gul gaindo (Bal.) Tagetes erecta L.
Gul-i-abbasa (Pers.) Mirabilis Jalapa L.
Gul-i-anar (Teh.) Punica Granatum L.
Gul-i-arbore(?) (Teh.) Salvia Hydrangea DC.
Gul-i-babuna (Ham.) Anthemis Wiedemanniana F. & M.
Gul-i-banafshah (Teh.) Viola sp.
Gul-i-bumadaran Achillea Santolina L.
Gul-i-chaman (Teh.) Lolium rigidum Gaud.
Gul-i-gav-zaban (Teh.) Echium amoenum Fisch. & Mey. and other spp.
Gul-i-geshuz (Ham.) Cuscuta planifolia Ten. and C. hyalina Roth
Gul-i-halva (Isf.) Celosia argentea L.
Gul-i-hamaz (Dymock) Rumex vesicarius L. (p. 167)
Gul-i-ja'fari (Teh.) Tagetes erecta L.
Gul-i-jauz Myristica fragrans Houtt.
Gul-i-kadu (Teh., Ham.) Cucurbita Pepo DC.
Gul-i-kajira (Ar.) Carthamus tinctorius L.
Gul-i-kakanj Physalis Alkekengi L.
Gul-i-keshus (Pers.) Cuscuta planifolia Ten. and C. hyalina Roth
Gul-i-khatm! Althaea lavateraefolia DC.
Gul-i-khatml (Teh.) Althaea sp.
Gul-i-khatmi (Ait.) Malva sylvestris L. var. mauritiana Boiss.
Gul-i-livas (Ham., Teh.) Rheum Ribes L.
Gul-i-mlufar (Teh.) Nymphaea alba L.
Gul-i-pan!rak (Teh.) Malva sylvestris L. var. mauritiana Boiss.
Gul-i-parr (Isf.) Heracleum persicum Desf.
Gul-i-pisteh (Bom.) Pistacia Khinjuk Stocks.
Gul-i-punah (Isf.) Mentha sylvestris L.
Gul-i-punah (Teh.) Hyssopus officinalis L. var. angustifolia Boiss.
Gul-i-raman-zeba (Ait.) Rosa foetida Herm.
Gul-i-rang (Teh.) Carthamus tinctorius L.
Gul-i-sarnigun (Teh.) Fritillaria imperialis L.
PLANTS AND DRUGS OF IRAN AND IRAQ 225
Gul-i-sarv (Teh.) Cupressus sempervirens L.
Gul-i-serwaj (Pers.) Hymenocrater elegans Br. (p. 168)
Gul-i-shirper (Pers.) Fritillaria imperialis L.
Gul-i-sipar (Teh.) Heracleum persicum Desf.
Gul-i-surkh (Teh.) Rosa damascena Mill.
Gul-i-zard (Teh.) Rosa foetida Herm.
Gul-jaferi (Hind.) Tagetes erecta L.
Gulkhand See Rosa damascena Mill.
Gul nare-farci (Schl.) Punica Granatum L.
Gulnar-i-farsI (Teh.) Punica Granatum L.
Gur (Leh) See Saccharum officinarum L.
Gurfah (Teh.) Cinnamomum Cassia Blume
Guzk (Kurd.) Juglans regia L.
Habbat Halwah (Iraq) Peucedanum graveolens Benth. & Hook.
Habb-dilmaluk (Ait.) Croton Tiglium L.
Habb-el-khatai Croton Tiglium L.
Habb-el-nil (Ham.) f . . .Ipomoea hederacea Jacq.
Habb-el-salatin (Ham.) Croton Tiglium L.
Habb-i-balsan (Isf.) Commiphora opobalsamum Kunth
Habbu'l ghar (Isf.) Pistacia Khinjuk Stocks.
Habbu'l-ma'lab (Teh.) Prunus Mahaleb L.
Hab-el-aas (Ar.) Myrtus communis L.
Hab-el-a'ra'r (Ind. bazaars) Juniperus excelsa Bieb.
Hab-el-balasana (Ar.) Commiphora opobalsamum Kunth
Hab-el-zalim (Ar.) Hibiscus cannabinus L.
Hab-es-souda (Ar., Egy., Iraq) Nigella saliva Sibth.
Hab-safarjal Pyrus Cydonia L.
Habul-khazra (Teh.) Pistacia Khinjuk Stocks.
Hab-ul-mahaliba (Ar.) Prunus Mahaleb L.
Hab-us-sudan (Ar.) Cassia Absus L.
Hajarat el dib (Ar.) Withania somnifera Dunal
Hajaru'l-yahud (Pers.) Cidaris sp.
Hajr-el-armeni (Ar.) Armenian Earth
Halawi (Iraq) Phoenix dactylifera L.
Haldi (Hind.) Curcuma domestica Val. and C. longa Trim.
Halilah-i-kabull (Teh., Isf.) Terminalia Chebula Retz.
Halllah-i-siyah (Teh., Isf.) Terminalia Chebula Retz.
Halllah-i-zard (Teh., Isf.) Terminalia Chebula Retz.
Halim (Hind.) Lepidium sativum L.
Haliyun (Teh.) Asparagus officinalis L.
Halu zhgarh (Kurd.) Prunus domestica L. var. Juliana
Hamam Komandji (Turk.) Malva sylvestris L. var. mauritiana Boiss.
Hamlshah bahar (Teh., Iraq) Calendula officinalis L.
Handhal (Kurd.) Citrullus Colocynthis Schrad.
Hanzal (Ar.) Citrullus Colocynthis Schrad.
Har (Hind.) Terminalia Chebula Retz.
Kara (Hind.) Terminalia Chebula Retz.
Harhar-kohl (Afg.) Juniperus excelsa Bieb.
Haritaki (Beng.) Terminalia Chebula Retz.
Haritala (Sans.) Arsenic Trisulphide
Harmal (Ar., Iraq) Peganum Harmala L.
Harmal rutbah (Ar., Iraq) Peganum Harmala L.
Hartal (Hind.) Arsenic Trisulphide
Hasach (Iraq) Tribulus terrestris L.
Hasawi Phoenix dactylifera L.
226 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. IX
Hastah-i-albalu (Teh.) Prunus Cerasus L.
Hastah-i-naranj (Teh.) Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck
Hasta-i-zard alu (Pers.) Prunus Armeniaca L.
Havah-i-chubah (Teh.) Onosma echioides L.
Hawuch (Turk.) Daucus Carota L.
Hebbel asle (Schl.) Tamarix pentandra Pall.
Hebbul-beneh (Ar.) Pistacia Khinjuk Stocks.
Helenion (Gr.) Inula Helenium L.
Hermodactyl (Gr.) Colchicum luteum Baker and C. speciosum
Hil (Ar.) Amomum subulatum Roxb.
Hil (Iraq) Elettaria Cardamomum Maton.
Hil-i-qurab (Teh., Isf.) Amomum subulatum Roxb.
Hinna (Iraq) Lawsonia alba Lam.
Hinnay-i-barg (Teh.) Lawsonia alba Lam.
Hintah Triticum sp.
Hintah Khushnah Triticum durum Desf. (p. 182)
Hintah Qandahar! Triticum vulgare Vill.
Hintah walwal Triticum sp.
Hira dukhi (Hind.) Dracaena Cinnabari Balf.
Hirda (Bom.) Terminalia Chebula Retz.
Hishwarg (Bal.) Delphinium Zalil Ait. & Hemsl.
Hsiang fu (Chin.) Cyperus rotundus L.
Hulbah (Iraq) Trigonella Foenum-graecum L.
Hurtamun (Iraq) Lathyrus sativus L.
Idhrah baidha (Ar.) Sorghum vulgare Pers.
Ighir iggur (Ar.) Acorus Calamus L.
Ignatia Amara Strychnos Ignatii Berg.
Iklll (Teh.) Astragalus hamosus L.
Iklll-ul-malik (Ar.) Astragalus hamosus L.
Iklll-ul-mulk (Bom.) Astragalus hamosus L.
Ilachi (Hind.) Elettaria Cardamomum Maton.
Imm-harmal Punica Granatum L.
'Inab (Iraq) Vitis vinifera L.
Inab-ath-thalab (Teh.) Solanum nigrum L.
Inab-ed-dib (Ar.) Solanum nigrum L.
Indrajaou (Hind.) Holarrhena antidysenterica Wall.
Indrazana (Hind.) Citrullus Colocynthis Schrad.
Intubus (Lat.) Cichorium Intybus L.
Irisha (Ind. bazaars) Iris spuria Pall.
Isbaghol (Bal.) Plantago ciliata Desf. (p. 155)
Isband (Bom.) Corchorus olitorius L.
Isfedaj (Ar.) Plumbi Carbonas
Isghand (Bal.) Zataria multiflora Boiss.
Ish-hony Gossypium peruvianum (p. 123)
Ishkar (Ind. bazaars) See Cymbopogon Schoenanthus Spreng.
Iskhir (Ar.) Cymbopogon Schoenanthus Spreng.
Ispaghul (Pers.) Plantago ovata Forsk.
Isparak (Teh.) Delphinium Zalil Ait. & Hemsl.
Isparza (Yark.) See Chahar-tukhmah
Isparzah (Teh.) Plantago ovata Forsk.
Ispinakh (Iraq) Spinacia oleracea L.
Issikuttuz (Turk.) Salvia Hydrangea DC.
Izgun (Bal.) Zataria multiflora Boiss.
Izkhir-i-jami (Ar.) Vetiveria zizanioides Stapf (also p. Ill)
PLANTS AND DRUGS OF IRAN AND IRAQ 227
Ja (Chin.) Thea sinensis L.
Ja'ad (Iraq) Teucrium Folium L.
Jaephal (Hind.) Myristica fragrans Houtt.
Ja'fari (Iraq) Tagetes erecta L.
Jamalgota (Punj.) Croton Tiglium L.
Jangali-haladi (Hind.) Curcuma aromatica Salisb.
Jav (Sind) Hordcum vulgare L.
Jata-masi (Sans., Hind.) Nardostachys Jatamansi DC.
Jatt (Ar.) Medicago saliva L.
Jau (Iraq) Hordeum vulgare L.
Jauz-i-buya (Teh., Ar.) Myristica fragrans Houtt.
Jav (Hind.) Hordeum vulgare L.
Jawz-i-rumi (Afg.) Juglans regia L.
Jayanti (Beng.) Sesbania aculeata Poir.
Jazar (Iraq) Daucus Carota L.
Jazr-ul-bostani (Ar.) Daucus Carota L.
Jequirity (Tupi, Brazil) Abrus precatorius L.
Jift (Teh.) Pistacia integerrima Stew.
Jiljil (Iraq) Hibiscus cannabinus L.
Jinjili (Hind.) Sesamum indicum L.
Jira (Beng., Bom.). . . Cuminum Cyminum L.
Jira-shak (N.E.Pers.) Carum Bulbocastanum Koch
Joshan ShlrazI (Teh.) Thymus Serpyllum L. var. Kotschyanus Boiss.
Jouj macel (Ar.) Datura Stramonium L.
Jowar (Hind.) Sorghum vulgare Pers.
Joyi safld (Iraq) Hordeum vulgare L.
Joyi siyah (Iraq) Hordeum vulgare L.
Joz (Turk.) Juglans regia L.
Ju (Kurd.) Hordeum vulgare L.
Juft (Teh.) Pistacia integerrima Stew.
Juntiyana (Duk.) Gentiana lutea L.
Jupha (Hind.) Hyssopus officinalis L. var. angustifolia Boiss.
Jutiyana (Isf.) Gentiana lutea L.
Kababah-i-chlnl (Teh., Isf.) Piper Cubeba L.
Kababah-i-dahan kushadeh (Pers.) . Zanthoxylum Rhetsa DC.
Kabab-chini (Hind.) Piper Cubeba L.
Kabar (Pers., Iraq) .Capparis spinosa L.
Kabiste talkh (Pers.) Citrullus Colocynthis Schrad.
Kachola (Pers.) See Datura Stramonium L.
Kachura (Hind.) Curcuma Zedoaria Roxb. and C. Zerumbet
Kadu (Hind.) Cucurbita Pepo DC.
Kaf-i-darya (Ar.) Sepia officinalis L.
Kafshah (Teh., Ham.) Carthamus tinctorius L.
Kahkuti (Bal.) Zizyphora tenuior L.
Kahu-khaskabija (Hind.) Lactuca saliva L.
Kaik-vash (Isf.) Crataegus orientalis Bieb.
Kakanj (Isf., Teh.) Physalis Alkekengi L.
Kakil-i-zard (Teh.) Nannorrhops Ritchieana Wendl,
Kakutl (Teh.) Zizyphora tenuior L.
Kaladanah (Hind.) Ipomoea hederacea Jacq.
Kala Drakh (Ind.) Vitis vinifera L.
Kala jira (Hind.) Nigella saliva Sibth.
Kalamb-ki-jar (Hind.) Jateorhiza Columba Miers
Kala-zirah (Afg.) Carum Bulbocastanum Koch
228 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. IX
Kalpah (Bom.) Cinnamomum Cassia Blume
Kalpora (Bal.) Teucrium Stocksianum Boiss. (p. 178)
Kamal (Ind.) Nymphaea sp. (p. 144)
Kamela (Hind., Bom.) Mallotus philippinensis Muell. Arg.
Kam-parah (Punj., Yark.) See Chahar-tukhmah
Kandal (Afg.) Dorema Ammoniacum Don
Kangar (Isf., Teh.) Cynara Scolymus L.
Kangar-i-dahri (Isf., Teh.) Cynara Scolymus L.
Kanim (Kurd.) Triticum vulgare Vill.
Kanocha (Isf.) Salvia macrosiphon Boiss.
Kansburaj (Ind. bazaars) Adiantum Capillus-Veneris L.
Kapila (Mad.) Mallotus philippinensis Muell. Arg.
Karafs (Iraq) Apium graveolens L.
Karanaphal (Ar.) Eugenia aromatica Baill.
Karasza (Hind.) Prunus Cerasus L.
Karawyah (Iraq) See Peucedanum graveolens Benth. & Hook.
Karaz (Ar.) Prunus Cerasus L.
Karbasu (Achundow) See Roccella Montagnei Bel.
Karchak (Ham.) Ricinus communis L.
Karedemonah (Ham.) Conium maculatum L.
Karezgi (Bal.) Solanum nigrum L.
Karkooti Egyptian Earth, Sigillated Earth
Karkum (Pers.) Crocus sativus L.
Karkum (Teh.) Curcuma domestica Val. and C. longa Trim.
Kami Yarikh (Tab.) Plantago sp.
Kar shutur (Pers.) Alhagi camelorum Fisch.
Karut (Afg.) Bos indicus
Karvaya-i-dashti (Pers.) Conium maculatum L.
Kashburat (Teh.) Adiantum Capillus-Veneris L.
Kashburat-el-bir (Pers.) Adiantum Capillus-Veneris L.
Kashi (Hind., Bom., Beng.) Cichorium Intybus L.
Kashi (Leh) See Saccharum officinarum L.
Kashir (Bal.) Erysimum repandum L.
Kashk Kashk (Kurd.) Bos indicus
Kashus (Pers.) Cuscuta planifolia Ten. and C. hyalina Roth
Kashuth (Ar.) Cuscuta planifolia Ten. and C. hyalina Roth
Kasis (Pers.) Lepidium Iberis L. (p. 171)
Kassutha (Gr.) Cuscuta planifolia Ten. and C. hyalina Roth
Katan (Ait., Afg.) Linum usitatissimum L.
Katek bah(?) (Teh.) Pyrethrum sp.(?)
Kathlra (Teh.) Astragalus gummifer Labill.
Kat-i-gulabI (Teh.) Uncaria Gambier Roxb.
Katira gond (Hind.) Astragalus gummifer Labill.
Kat karanj (Hind.) Caesalpinia Bonducella Roxb.
Katun (Ait., Afg.) Linum usitatissimum L.
Kavl-a-kuknar (Pers., Afg.) Papaver somniferum L.
Kawich (Isf.) Crataegus orientalis Bieb.
Keruwiah (Isf.) Chaerophyllum sp.
Kesa Quercus sp.
Kesar (Kash.) Crocus sativus L.
Kesara (Hind.) Crocus sativus L.
Kesari (Hind.) Lathyrus sativus L.
Keshus (Pers.) Cuscuta planifolia Ten. and C. hyalina Roth
Khabazi (Ar.) Malva sylvestris L. var. mauritiana Boiss.
Khadrawi (Iraq) Phoenix dactylifera L.
Khakechi (Schl.) Erysimum repandum L.
PLANTS AND DRUGS OF IRAN AND IRAQ 229
Khak-i-mugl (Teh.) Commiphora Molmol Engl.
Khakshlr (Teh.) Sisymbrium Sophia L. (also p. 118)
Khakshir-i-shlrln (Teh.) Sisymbrium Sophia L.
Khakshir-talkh (Isf.) Erysimum repandum L.
Khaksi (Hind.) Sisymbrium Sophia L.
Khalal Phoenix dactylifera L.
Khalal-i-naranj (Teh.) Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck
Khand (Leh) See Saccharum officinarum L.
Kharbuz (Ind. bazaars) See Citrullus vulgaris Schrad.
Kharbuzah-rubah (Pers.) Citrullus Colocynthis Schrad.
Khardal Brassica nigra (L.) Koch
Khardal-i-shahr! (Teh., Ham.) Salvia sp.
Khar-danick (Bal.) Plantago ovata Forsk.
Khar-khasak (Teh.) Tribulus terrestris L.
Khar mahra (Pers.) Cypraea moneta L.
Kharnuban (Isf.) Prosopis Stephaniana Kunth
Khar-shnai (Kash.) Pistacia integerrima Stew.
Khas Khas (Hind.) Vetiveria zizanioides Stapf
Khasib Phoenix dactylifera L.
Khatmi See Malva sylvestris L. var. mauritiana Boiss.
Khatmolt (Bal.) See Mummy
Khavi (Hind.) Cymbopogon Schoenanthus Spreng.
Khaza-i-ibl!s Caesalpinia Bonducella Roxb.
Khib-baze (Schl.) Malva sylvestris L. var. mauritiana Boiss.
Khili-wili (Tab.) Lepidium Draba L.
Khira (Punj.) Cucumis sativus L.
Khitmi See Malva sylvestris L. var. mauritiana Boiss.
Khitmi-i-kuchak (Pers.) Malva sylvestris L. var. mauritiana Boiss.
Khorasain-ajwan (Ind. bazaars). . . .Conium maculatum L.
Khove (Afg.) Nannorrhops Ritchieana Wendl.
Khu (Afg.) Nannorrhops Ritchieana Wendl.
Khubah (Ar.) Erysimum repandum L.
Khubani (Hind.) Prunus Armeniaca L.
Khub-kalan (Hind.) Sisymbrium Sophia L.
Khulanjan (Teh.) Languas officinarum Burkill
Khun-i-siyavash (Isf.) Dracaena Cinnabari Balf.
Khurma Phoenix dactylifera L.
Khushak (Ham.) Asparagus adscendens Roxb.
Khushk-horak (Afg.) Bos indicus
Kinguere (Schl.) Cynara Scolymus L.
Kira (Hind.) Cucumis sativus L.
Kirmani (Isf.) Carum Bulbocastanum Koch
Kisa Quercus sp.
Kishah-i-kasni (Ham., Teh.) Cichorium Intybus L.
Kisher Kundur Boswellia Carterii Bird.
Kish-kash (Ar.) Papaver somniferum L.
Kishmish (Pers.) Vitis vinifera L.
Kishmish-askari (Bagh.) Vitis vinifera L.
Kishmish-i-dOgh (Bagh.) Vitis vinifera L.
Kishmish-i-kull (Teh.) Loranthus Grewinkii Boiss. & Bunge
Kishmish-i-sabzah (Bagh.) Vitis vinifera L.
Kishmish-kawali (Ind. bazaars) .... Loranthus Grewinkii Boiss. & Bunge
Kisht bar Kisht (Pers.) Helicteres Isora L.
Kodu (Ind. bazaars) See Citrullus vulgaris Schrad.
230 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. IX
Kohi bang (Bal.) Hyoscyamus reticulatus L.
Kohl Farsi (Pers.) Astragalus fasciculaefolius Boiss.
Kohl Kirmani Astragalus fasciculaefolius Boiss.
Kondochi (Schl.) Veratrum album L.
Koriyan (Gr.) Coriandrum sativum L.
Kornub (Isf.) Prosopis Stephaniana Kunth
Kors-i-kamar (Ait.) Entada gigas (L.) Fawc. & Rendle
Koshataki (Sans.) Luffa acutangula Roxb.
Krafas-al-bir (Iraq) Adiantum Capillus-Veneris L.
Kriwarik (Turk.) Agaric
Kriit (Afg.) Bos indicus
Kuchila (Hind.) Strychnos Nux Vomica L.
Kuchulah (Teh.) Strychnos Nux Vomica L.
Kuhan-i-shutur (Teh.) Camelus dromedarius L.
Kuhl (Pers.) Antimonium Sulphidum
Kukil-i-pol (Kash.) Cuscuta planifolia Ten. and C. hyalina Roth
Kulambu (Teh.) Jateorhiza Columba Miers
Kunbut (Syr.) Prosopis Stephaniana Kunth
Kundij (Turk.) Sesamum indicum L.
Kundur (Achundow) Gypsophila paniculata L.
Kundur (Teh.) Boswellia Carterii Bird.
Kundura unsa and zakara Boswellia Carterii Bird.
Kundusch (Achundow) Gypsophila paniculata L.
Kundush (Ham., Teh.) Veratrum album L.
Kunjad (Bom.) Astragalus fasciculaefolius Boiss.
Kunjad (Kurd.) Sesamum indicum L.
Kunjada (Ait.) Astragalus fasciculaefolius Boiss.
Kunjidah-i-surkh u safld (Teh.). . . . Astragalus fasciculaefolius Boiss.
Kurdumana (Hind.) Conium maculatum L.
Kurk amla (Turk.) Phyllanthus Emblica L.
Kurwa (Ar., Iraq) Ricinus communis L.
Kusam (Hind.) Carthamus tinctorius L.
Kusa misri (Leh) See Saccharum officinarum L.
Kust (Ham.) Saussurea Lappa C. B. Clarke
Kutha Kushta patchuk (Hind.). . . .Saussurea Lappa C. B. Clarke
Kuzbara (Ar., Iraq) Coriandrum sativum L.
Lachyat-as-sheikh See Lecanora esculenta Eversm.
Lakh (Bom.) Lathyrus sativus L.
Lala (Afg.) Tulipa montana Lindl.
Lal-chandan (Hind.) Pterocarpus santalinus L.
Lai mirch (Hind.) Capsicum frutescens L.
Lang (Guz.) Lathyrus sativus L.
Lapis jadaicus (Ph. Pers.) Cidaris sp.
Lar (Kash.) Cucumis sativus L.
Lasurkh (Teh., Isf.) Cupri oxidum
Laung (Hind.) Eugenia aromatica Baill.
Leeka (Iraq) Rhodymenia sp.
Lehsan (Hind.) Allium sativum L.
Lek-poshte (Schl.) Testudo horsfieldii Grey and T. graeca
Lesan ul Lamal (Ar.) Plantago ovata Forsk.
Liane vermifuge (Fr.) Quisqualis indica L.
Lihayat as-shayib (Bagh.) Roccella Montagnei Bel.
Lihayat as-shayib (Iraq) Cladophora sp. (p. 165)
Lihur Phoenix dactylifera L.
Limmon Basra (Iraq) Citrus aurantifolia (Christm.) Swingle
PLANTS AND DRUGS OF IRAN AND IRAQ 231
Limon (Iraq) Citrus aurantifolia (Christm.) Swingle
Limon-amman (Iraq) Citrus aurantifolia (Christm.) Swingle
Livas (Pers., Ar.) Rheum Ribes L.
Lizan ul usafir (Achundow) Holarrhena antidysenterica Wall.
Lubia (Iraq) Vigna Catjang Walp.
Lubia (Teh.) Phaseolus vulgaris L.
Lubia-kermiz (Teh.) Phaseolus vulgaris L.
Lubiya-gul (Teh.) Dolichos Lablab L.
Lukah (Kurd.) Gossypium sp. (p. 123)
Lyka (Iraq) Rhodymenia sp.
Mab-ul-dan (Ar.) Melia Azedarach L.
Maghdunes (Iraq) Carum Petroselinum Benth. & Hook.
Maglah Matricaria sp.
Mahizahraj (Ar.) Verbascum Thapsus L.
Mahriz (Kash.) See Lecanora esculenta Eversm.
Maiphala (Hind.) Quercus infectoria Olivier
Majandri (Bal.) Sesbania aculeata Poir.
Mak (Bal.) Vigna Catjang Walp.
Mamiran (Teh.) Coptis Teeta Wall.
Mamlz (Teh.) Copra sp.
Mamlz-i-kiri (Teh.) Copra sp.
Manjit (Hind.) Rubia Cordifolia L. and R. tinctorium
Mansaril (Kash.) Polygonum amplexicaule Don (p. 156)
Marchubah (Ham.) Asparagus adscendens Roxb.
M urchin gusht Stachys lavandulaefolia Vahl
Marg-i-mahl (Teh.) Anamirta paniculata Coleb.
Marjanjush (Achundow) Origanum Majorana L. (p. 174)
Marmut (Ait.) Boucerosca Aucheri(l) (p. 135)
Marorphali (Hind.) Helicteres Isora L.
Marv (Isf.) Salvia macrosiphon Boiss.
Marva (Yark.) See Chahar-tukhmah
Maryam nukhudi (Teh.) Teucrium Folium L.
Marzanjush (Tab.) Stachys lavandulaefolia Vahl
Marzanpish (Teh.) Zataria multiflora Boiss.
Mash (Iraq, Pers.) Phaseolus radiatus L.
Masha (Sans.) Phaseolus radiatus L.
Mashana churro (Bal.) Mummy
Mash-i-maha (Afg.) Phaseolus radiatus L.
Masur (Hind.) Lens esculenta Moench
Maur (Bal.) Salvia aegyptica L. (p. 169)
Mayah-i-barrah (Isf.) Ovis sp.
Mazaryun (Teh.) Verbascum Thapsus L.
Mazu (Isf.) Quercus infectoria Olivier
Meriam Nekhodi (Teh.) Teucrium scordioides Schreb. (p. 177)
Metahk (Iraq) Juglans regia L.
Methi (Hind., Bom.) Trigonella Foenum-graecum L.
Mishi Phoenix dactylifera L.
Mishk-i-taramashia (Ind. bazaars).. Zizyphora tenuior L.
Mishmish (Iraq) Prunus Armeniaca L.
Misri (Egy.) See Saccharum officinarum L.
Mlvah-i-zaban-i-gunjishk (Pers.). . .Holarrhena antidysenterica Wall.
Moghl-ezregh (Schl.) Commiphora Mukul Engl.
Moma (Hind.) Hymenoptera, Apoidea
232 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. IX
Moohar-khas (Ind. bazaars) Adiantum Capillus-Veneris L.
Motha (Hind.) Cyperus rotundus L.
Muchchah (Isf.) Lepidium Draba L.
Mughat (Egy.) Glossostemon Bruguieri Desf.
Mugrila (Hind.) Nigella saliva Sibth.
Mukhlisah Matricaria sp.
Mukul, See muql
Mula (Hind.) Raphanus sativus L.
Mulukhiyah (Iraq) Corchorus olitorius L.
Mum (Teh.) Hymenoptera, Apoidea
Mum-i-kafuri Hymenoptera, Apoidea
Mumiya (Pers.) Mummy
Mumiyai (Pers.) Mummy
Munakha (Pers.) Vitis vinifera L.
Mun-e-makki (Teh.) Commiphora Molmol Engl.
Muql (Ar.) See Commiphora Mukul Engl.
Muql-i-abair (Teh.) Commiphora Mukul Engl.
Muql-i-azraq (Teh.) Commiphora Mukul Engl.
Muql-i-yahud (Teh.) Commiphora Mukul Engl.
Mur (Hind., Bom.) Commiphora Molmol Engl.
Murda sang (Teh.) Plumbi Oxidum
Murda sang-i-nugra'i (Teh.) Plumbi Oxidum
Murda sang-i-tila'I (Teh.) Plumbi Oxidum
Murd-i-sabz Myrtus communis L.
Muro (Hind.) Raphanus sativus L.
Musabbar (Ar.) Aloe Perryi Baker
Muschk-i-zemin Cyperus rotundus L.
Myrrha mechensis (Ph. Pers.) Commiphora Molmol Engl.
Nafal (Iraq) Trifolium repens L.
Nafil (Iraq) Trifolium repens L.
Nakhl Phoenix dactylifera L.
Nakhud (Teh., Punj., Turk.) Cicer arietinum L.
Namak (Teh.) Sodium carbonate
Naphae flores (Schl.) Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck
Nar (Turk.) Punica Granatum L.
Nasab!dah-i-kirmani (Teh.) Indigofera tinctoria L.
Nashwar (Pers.) Nicotiana sp.
Nenuphar (Ph. Pers.) Nymphaea alba L.
Nil (Hind.) Indigofera tinctoria L.
Nil-kanthe (Punj.) Chrozophora verbascifolia Juss.
Niluf ar See Nymphaea alba L.
Nllufar-i-kirmanashahl (Teh.) Nymphaea alba L.
Nishastah (Teh.) Triticum vulgar e Vill.
Nisik (Kurd, in Iraq) Lens esculenta Moench
Nok (Kurd.) Cicer arietinum L.
Normush (Ham.) Ochrocarpus longifolius Benth. & Hook.
Nukhud-i-alvand (Teh., Isf.) Aristolochia rotunda L.
Nukhund-i-alavandi (Ar.) Aristolochia rotunda L.
Numi Basra Citrus aurantifolia (Christm.) Swingle
Nur-mus (Ham.) Ochrocarpus longifolius Benth. & Hook.
Omum (Tam.) Carum copticum Benth. & Hook.
Orisa (Afg.) Iris spuria Pall.
Osteocolla (Lat.) Mummy
Osthoukhodouce (Schl.) Lavandula dentata L.
PLANTS AND DRUGS OF IRAN AND IRAQ 233
Pachman-i-puh (Teh.) Helicteres Isora L.
Padzahr (Pers.) Capra aegagrus Gmel.
Paglah (Kurd.) Vicia Faba L.
Paiwand-e-maryam (Pers.) Prunus Mahaleb L.
Pala-mangy (Kash.) See Lecanora esculenta Eversm.
Palas Keby (Hind.) Butea frondosa Roxb.
Palaspapado (Duk.) Butea frondosa Roxb.
Palsan (Hind.) Hibiscus cannabinus L.
Pambu (Kurd.) Gossypium sp. (p. 123)
Pambuq (Turk.) Gossypium sp. (p. 123)
Panirak See Malva sylvestris L. var. mauritiana Boiss.
Panir mayeh Ovis sp.
Papal (Pers.) Areca Catechu L.
Papita (Ar., Hind., Bom.) Strychnos Ignatii Berg.
Paptiyal (Teh.) Strychnos Ignatii Berg.
Parakeh-i-hindi (Teh.) Butea frondosa Roxb.
Parr-i-siyavash Adiantum Capillus-Veneris L.
Pat (Beng.) Bombyx fortunatus Hutton
Patchak (Beng.) Saussurea Lappa C. B. Clarke
Pathar-ka-ber (Hind.) Cidaris sp.
Pating (Afg.) Prunus Armeniaca L.
Pechak (Hind.) Helicteres Isora L.
Peganon (Scripture) Ruta graveolens L.
Penirek (Schl.) Malva sylvestris L. var. mauritiana Boiss.
Phataki (Hind.) Alum
Phitkari (Hind.) Alum
Piaz (Kurd.) Allium Cepa L.
Pllah abrlsham (Teh.) Bombyx fortunatus Hutton
Pileh Bombyx fortunatus Hutton
Pil gush Inula Helenium L.
Pinang (Mai.) Areca Catechu L.
Plrlnj (Turk.) Oryza sativa L.
Pistah (Teh.) Pistacia vera L.
Pitar saleri (Hind.) Carum Petroselinum Benth. & Hook.
P6st-a-kuknar (Pers., Afg.) Papaver somniferum L.
Post~i-limon (Afg.) Citrus aurantifolia (Christm.) Swingle
Post-i-naranj Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck
Prabala (Sans.) Corallium rubrum Lam.
Psylli semina (Ph. Pers.) Plantago ovata Forsk.
Pudina (Hind., Pers.) Mentha sylvestris L.
Punah (Teh.) Mentha sylvestris L.
Pune (Teh.) Quercus Vallonea Kotschy
Punir-mayeh-shutur (Pers.) Camelus dromedarius L.
Punjah-i-salaba Orchis latifolia L.
Pust-i-kinah-kinah (Teh.) Cinchona Calisaya Wedd.
Pust-i-pistah (Teh.) Pistacia vera L.
Pust-i-utruj (Teh.) Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck
Qalyab (Teh.) Sodium Carbonate
Qamr-ad-din Prunus Armeniaca L.
Qanaqinah (Iraq) Cinchona Calisaya Wedd.
Qantaryun (Teh.) Equisetum ramosissimum Desf.
Qarah Koz (Turk.) Calendula officinalis L.
Qaranful (Iraq) Eugenia aromatica Baill.
Qaranful-asward (Iraq) Eugenia aromatica Baill.
Qarch (Teh.) Agaric
234 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. IX
Qar-i-qurut (Teh.) Bos indicus
Qarpuz (Turk.) Citrullus vulgaris Schrad.
Qatera (Hind.) Astragalus gummifer Labill.
Qatt (Ar.) Medicago sativa L.
Qodumah (Ar.) Alyssum campestre L.
Qunah baqan (Turk.) Helianthus annum L.
Qunbalilah (Teh.) Mallotus philippinensis Muell. Arg.
Qunnab Hibiscus cannabinus L. (p. 125)
Qurdumana (Teh.) Chaerophyllum sp.
Qurs-i-kamar (Teh.) Entada gigas (L.) Fawc. & Rendle
Qurtum (Ar.) Carthamus tinctorius L.
Qurunbad (Teh.) Curcuma aromatica Salisb.
Qurut (Teh.) Bos indicus
Qust-i-talkh (Teh.) Saussurea Lappa C. B. Clarke
Qutn (Ar.) Gossypium sp.
Qutn Amerikani Gossypium hirsutum L. (p. 122)
Qutn Iraqi Gossypium herbaceum L. (p. 122)
Qutn Misri Gossypium sp. (p. 123)
Rad. Junci odorati (Ph. Pers.) Cyperus rotundus L.
Rahishi (Ar.) Sesamum indicum L.
Raihan (Ar.) Ocimum Basilicum L.
Raihan (Yark.) See Chahar-tukhmah
Raiz de China (Port.) Smilax China L. and S. glabra Roxb.
Rajajira (Bom.) Corchorus olitorius L.
Rakta Chandana (Sans.) Pterocarpus santalinus L.
Rangan-ki-bel (Hind.) Quisqualis indica L.
Rangh (Ar., Hind.) Lawsonia alba Lam.
Rang-i-kirmani (Teh.) Indigofera tinctoria L.
Rang-i-sabldah (Teh.) Indigofera tinctoria L.
Rang-i-vasmah (Teh.) Indigofera tinctoria L.
Rang-mehndi (Hind.) Lawsonia alba Lam.
Ranj-i-badshah Onosma sp.
Rasan Inula Helenium L.
Rashi (Bagh.) Sesamum indicum L.
Ra's-i-hindi (Teh.) Inula Helenium L.
Rasin (Hind.) Sesbania aculeata Poir.
Rasna (Hind.) Inula Helenium L.
Ratanjali (Guz.) Pterocarpus santalinus L.
Ratanjot (Hind.) Onosma echioides L.
Rati (Hind.) Abrus precatorius L.
Ratiyanah (Teh.) Pterocarpus santalinus L.
Razmah (Kash.) Phaseolus vulgaris L.
Resha-i-kishvar (Ham., Isf., Teh.)..Cuscutaplanifolia Ten. and C. hyalina Roth
Resham Bombyx fortunatus Hutton
Resham-ki-keri (Duk.) Bombyx fortunatus Hutton
Reyhane Kouhi (Schl.) Ocimum canum Sims
Risha Baba Adam (Schl.) Arctium Lappa L.
Rlshah havah-i-chubah (Ham.) Onosma echioides L.
Rlshah-i-anar (Teh.) Punica Granatum L.
Rishah-i-anjabar (Teh.) Polygonum Bistorta L.
Rishah-i-arlsa (Teh.) Iris spuria Pall.
Rishah-i-asl-i-siis (Teh.) Glycyrrhiza glabra L.
Rlshah-i-baba-Adam (Teh.) Arctium Lappa L.
Rishah-i-kabar (Teh.) Capparis spinosa L.
Rishah-i-kalafs (Teh.) Ferula Sumbul Hook. f.
PLANTS AND DRUGS OF IRAN AND IRAQ 235
Rlshah-i-khatmi (Ham.) Althaea lavateraefolia DC.
Rlshah-i-raziyanah (Teh.) Foeniculum vulgar e Mill.
Rlshah-shah-tut (Teh.) Morus nigra L.
Rishah tamesh (Teh.) Plumbago rosea L.
Rish-shar (Teh.) Ferula galbaniflua Boiss.
Rlvand-i-chin! (Isf., Teh.) Rheum palmatum L.
Riwas (Punj.) Rheum Ribes L.
Roghan-i-khash khash Papaver somniferum L.
Roghan-i-zagher (Ait., Afg.) Linum usitatissimum L.
Rojia (Port.) Tagetes erecta L.
Rounace (Schl.) Rubia Cordifolia L. and R. tinctorium L.
Rubb-i-sus Glycyrrhiza glabra L.
Rughan-i-char-i-chesak See Tribulus terrestris L.
Ruhan (Kurd.) Ocimum Basilicum L.
Runas (Teh., Isf.) Rubia Cordifolia L. and R. tinctorium L.
Runiyas (Teh., Isf.) Rubia Cordifolia L. and R. tinctorium L.
Rutab Phoenix dactylifera L.
Ruzz (Ar.) Oryza saliva L.
Sa'ad (Iraq) Cyperus rotundus L.
Sa'atar (Ind. bazaars) Zataria multiflora Boiss.
Sabr-i-zard (Teh.) Aloe Perryi Baker
Sadaf (Ar.) Cypraea moneta L.
Sadhaj-i-hindl (Isf.) Cinnamomum Cassia Blume
Safld ab-i-shaikh (Teh.) Plumbi Carbonas
Sag-anjar Solanum Dulcamara L. (p. 172)
Sages (Staff.) Pistacia Terebinthus L.
Sagiz-i-safid (Teh.) Pistacia Terebinthus L.
Sag Palak (Hind.) Spinacia oleracea L.
Sa'ir Phoenix dactylifera L.
Saisaban (Egy.) Sesbania aculeata Poir.
Sajji mati Sodium Carbonate
Saka-binaja (Ar.) Ferula persica Willd.
Sakblnaj (Teh.) Ferula persica Willd.
Sakulali (Teh.) Commiphora Mukul Engl.
Sa'lab (Teh.) Orchis latifolia L.
Salab-misri (Ar.) Orchis latifolia L.
Samagh Hamama (Hind.) Dorema Ammoniacum Don
Samgh Arabi (Ar., Pers.) Acacia Senegal Willd.
Samgh-i-arzhan (Teh.) Acacia Senegal Willd.
Samgh nadh (Punj.) Nummulites sp.
Samudraphena (Sans.) Sepia officinalis L.
Sana (Teh.) Cassia acutifolia Delile
Sana-hindi (Ar.) Cassia acutifolia Delile
Sana-mukhi (Iraq) Cassia acutifolia Delile
Sandal-i-safid (Teh.) Santalum album L.
Sandal-i-surkh (Teh.) Pterocarpus santalinus L.
Sandalus (Ind. bazaars) Trachylobium Hornemannianum Hayne
Sang-i-marjan (Hind.) Corallium rubrum Lam.
Sang-i-sar-i-mahl (Ind.) Percomorphi, Sciaendae
Sang-i-shadnaj (Afg.) Nummulites sp.
Sang-i-yahuda (Pers.) Cidaris sp.
Sanjirahut (Sans.) Calcium Sulphate
Sansaq (Ar.) Slachys lavandulaefolia Vahl
Saosafid (Ait.) Gypsophila paniculata L.
Sapistan (Pers.) Cordia Myxa L.
236 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. IX
Sarcocolla (Gr.) Astragalus fasciculaefolius Boiss.
Sarish Eremurus Aucherianus Boiss.
Sarsand (Bal.) Salvia Hydrangea DC.
Sarsun (Hind.) Brassica campestris L. var. Napus Bab.
Sarwali (Hind.) Celosia argentea L.
Satanj (Punj.) Nummulites sp.
Satari (Hind.) Ruta graveolens L.
Satarmul (Hind.) Asparagus adscendens Roxb.
Satavar (Hind.) Asparagus adscendens Roxb.
Sawa (Hind.) Peucedanum graveolens Benth. & Hook. (p. 148)
Sebestan (Pers.) Cordia Myxa L.
Seetere (Schl.) Thymus Serpyllum L. var. Kotschyanus Boiss.
Seid (Sud.) Cyperus rotundus L.
Sek binedge (Schl.) Ferula persica Willd.
Sekran (Syr.) Withania Somnifera Dunal
Semen Bardanae (English Herbal
1730) Arctium Lappa L.
Semen Basilici (Old Herbals) Ocimum Basilicum L.
Sem. Cichorii (Ph. Pers.) Cichorium Intybus L.
Sepistan (Teh.) Cordia Myxa L.
Sesbaniyah (Iraq) Sesbania aculeata Poir.
Seta Kundura (Hind.) Boswellia Carterii Bird.
Shabbit (Ar.) Peucedanum graveolens'Benth. & Hook. (p. 148)
Shaf-i-mamita (Teh.) Clyster
Shaftal (Punj., Bal.) Trifolium repens L.
Shagagi (Teh.) Trachydium Lehmanni Benth.
Shahdanej-i-'adas! (Teh.) Nummulites sp.
Shahdeve (Hind.) Chrozophora verbascifolia Juss.
Shahi (Leh) See Saccharum officinarum L.
Shahna (Bal.) Pistacia vera L.
Shahtarrah (Pers.) Fumaria parviflora Lam.
Shah-tut (Pers.) Morus nigra L.
Sha'ir Hordeum sp.
Sha'lr Abu Sikkatain (Ar.) Hordeum sp.
Sha'ir Abu Suwaif (Ar.) Hordeum sp.
Sha'irah Hordeum sp.
Sha'ir Sparqalan (Ar.) Hordeum sp.
Shakakula micari (Hind.) Asparagus adscendens Roxb.
Shakar (Pers.) Saccharum officinarum L.
Shakar-i-surkh (Teh.) Saccharum officinarum L.
Shakar tlqal (Teh.) Echinops persicus Stev.
Shakhah-i-marjan (Teh.) Corallium rubrum Lam.
Shakr-ul-ashar (Pers.) Cotoneaster nummularia Fisch. & Mey.
Shamballlah (Teh.) Trigonella Foenum-graecum L.
Shami (Iraq) Citrullus vulgaris Schrad.
Shams-wa-qamar (Iraq) Helianthus annuus L.
Shar^al-anat (Iraq) Adiantum Capillus-Veneris L.
Shatarrah (Teh., Isf.) Fumaria parviflora Lam.
Sha'ur Hordeum sp.
Sheb (Bagh., Iraq) Alum
Shekakul (Teh.) Trachydium Lehmanni Benth.
Shijar (Iraq) Cucurbita Pepo DC.
Shilib (Turk.) Oryza saliva L.
Shinah Azqhi (Bal.) Datura Stramonium L.
Shingir gaz Tamarix pentandra Pall.
Shirias. . . .Eremurus Aucherianus Boiss.
PLANTS AND DRUGS OF IRAN AND IRAQ 237
Shir Kalan (Teh.) Acanthophyllum squamosum Boiss.
Shir Khisht (Teh.) Cotoneaster nummularia Fisch. & Mey.
Shir-milk (Pers.) Cotoneaster nummularia Fisch. & Mey.
Shir-zad (Teh.) Lecanora esculenta Eversm.
Shltaraj (Teh.) Plumbago rosea L.
Shivit (Isf.) Peucedanum graveolens Benth. & Hook.
Shok (Ar.) Prosopis Stephaniana Kunth
Shorah (Hind.) Potassium Nitrate
Shudnuj udsee (Ar.) Nummulites sp.
Shurah-i-qalam (Teh.) Potassium Nitrate
Shuwairib Hordeum sp.
Shuwandar sukari (Iraq) Beta vulgaris L.
Siah gaz Tamarix articulata Vahl (p. 176)
Sibar (Ar.) Aloe Perryi Baker
Silaigah (Iraq) Beta vulgaris L.
Silaijah (Iraq) Beta vulgaris L.
Silajatu (Sans.) Mummy
Silajit (Hind.) Mummy
Siliq (Turk.) Beta vulgaris L.
Sim (Hind.) Dolichos Lablab L.
Simbi (Sans.) Dolichos Lablab L.
Simsim (Iraq) Sesamum indicum L.
Sindur (Bom.) Plumbi Oxidum
Sinjad-i-talkh (Teh., Isf.) Melia Azedarach L.
Sinn-aj-jamal Triticum sp.
Sinn-al-fil Triticum sp.
Sipand (Teh.) Peganum Harmala L.
Sipi (Hind.) Cypraea moneta L.
Sir (Teh., Iraq) Allium sativum L.
Siris Eremurus Aucherianus Boiss.
Sirish-i-narm Eremurus Aucherianus Boiss.
Sirlsh-i-saf!d (Isf., Teh.) Eremurus Aucherianus Boiss.
Siyah-danan (Teh.) Nigella saliva Sibth.
Siyah-tukhmah (Teh.) Nigella saliva Sibth.
So-ad (Ham.) Cyperus rotundus L.
Som (Ar.) Allium sativum L.
Soo'juch (Kurd.) Vitis vinifera L.
Sopari (Hind.) Areca Catechu L.
Soyah (Hind.) Peucedanum graveolens Benth. & Hook.
Spati-kari (Sans.) Alum
Spistha (Afg.) Medicago sativa L.
Stigu (Afg.) Prunus Armeniaca L.
Subz-i-gulanj (Teh.) Pistacia Khinjuk Stocks.
Sudab (Teh.) Ruta graveolens L.
Sudaba (Ar.) Ruta graveolens L.
Sufeda (Hind.) Plumbi Carbonas
Sufed musli (Bom.) Asparagus adscendens Roxb.
Sufid pathar (Hind.) Calcium Sulphate
Sukhur Pistacia Trebinthus L.
Sumbul (Teh.) Ferula Sumbul Hook. f.
Sumbul-i-lat!f (Teh., Isf.) Nardostachys Jatamansi DC.
Sumbul-jibali (Ar.) Nardostachys Jatamansi DC.
Sumbulu'1-tib (Teh., Isf.) Nardostachys Jatamansi DC.
Sumgh alucha (Pers.) See Prunus Cerasus L.
Summaq (Teh.) Rhus coriaria L.
238 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. IX
Summaq-i-shakki bi hastah (Teh.). . Rhus coriaria L.
Surinjan See Merendera persica Boiss.
Surinjan-i-kirmanI (Teh.) Cokhicum luteum Baker and C. speciosum
Surinjan-i-shirin (Ind. bazaars) .... See Merendera persica Boiss.
Surinjan-i-sufrah shudah (Teh.). . . . Merendera persica Boiss.
Surinjan-i-talkh (Pers.) Colchicum luteum Baker and C. speciosum
Sur-kuk (Afg.) Testudo horsfieldii Grey and T. graeca
Surmah (Pers.) Antimonium Sulphidum
Surma-ka-pathar (Hind.) Antimonium Sulphidum
Tabashir (Ind. bazaars) Bambusa arundinacea L.
Tabashira (Ar.) Bambusa arundinacea L.
Tabashlr-i-qalami (Teh.) Bambusa arundinacea L.
Taj-i-khurus (Teh.) Amaranthus paniculatus L.
Taj-i-rizi (Teh.) Solanum nigrum L.
Takmeria (Bom.) Ocimum Basilicum L.
Talispatra (Hind.) Taxus baccata L.
Talkak (?) (Iraq) Quercus lusitanica Lam. var. tauricola
Tambaku (Afg.) Nicotiana Tabacum L. and N. rustica L.
Tambra nagkeshur (Pers.) Ochrocarpus longifolius Benth. & Hook.
Tamr Phoenix dactylifera L.
Tannum (Ar.) Chrozophora verbascifolia Juss.
Tapalaq (Teh.) Cyperus rotundus L.
Tar-anjubin (Pers.) Alhagi camelorum Fisch. (also p. 162)
Tara tezak (Afg.) Lepidium sativum L.
Tarbuz (Teh.) Citrullus vulgaris Schrad.
Tarrah (Pers.) Fumaria parviflora Lam.
Tartak (Hind.) Rhus coriaria L.
Tavi misri (Leh) See Saccharum officinarum L.
Tawak (Kurd.) Celtis Tournefortii Lam. (p. 97)
Terengamisk(?) (Teh.) Calamintha graveolens Benth.
Thebba (Iraq) See Nicotiana Tabacum L. and N. rustica L.
Thum (Turk.) Allium sativum L.
Til (Hind.) Sesamum indicum L.
Timan (Iraq) Oryza saliva L.
Tin Ficus Carica L.
Tirsh (Kurd.) Rhus coriaria L.
Tochme Kertchec (Schl.) Ricinus communis L.
Towdri (Hind.) Sisymbrium Sophia L.
Tribolia (modern Gr.) Tribulus terrestris L.
Triorit (Sans.) Ipomoea Turpethum R. Br.
Triputa (Sans.) Ipomoea Turpethum R. Br.
Tuber Chinae Smilax China L. and S. glabra Roxb.
Tu fu ling (Chin.) Smilax China L. and S. glabra Roxb.
Tukhm-chirbati (Schl.) Ocimum canum Sims
Tukhm-i-anjurah (Teh.) Salvia macrosiphon Boiss.
Tukhm-i-babunah (Teh.) Matricaria Chamomilla L.
Tukhm-i-badanjan (Teh.) Solanum xanthocarpum Schr. & Wend, and S.
Tukhm-i-barhang (Ham.) Plantago major L.
Tukhm-i-bazrak (Ham.) Linum usitatissimum L.
Tukhm-i-bihdanah (Teh.) Pyrus Cydonia L.
Tukhm-i-chuqundur (Teh.) Beta vulgaris L.
Tukhm-i-garmak (Teh.) Citrullus vulgaris Schrad.
Tukhm-i-gishn!z (Teh.) Coriandrum sativum L.
PLANTS AND DRUGS OF IRAN AND IRAQ 239
Tukhm-i-havlj (Teh.) Daucus Carota L.
Tukhm-i-hummaz (Teh., Ham.).. . .Rumex conglomerate L. and R. obtusifolius L.
Tukhm-i-iblis (Teh.) Caesalpinia Bonducella Roxb.
Tukhm-i-isfand (Teh.) Peganum Harmala L.
Tukhm-i-ispanaj (Teh.) Spinacia oleracea L.
Tukhm-i-jinjak (Ait.) Prosopis Stephaniana Kunth
Tukhm-i-kadu (Teh.). Cucurbita Pepo DC.
Tukhm-i-kadu qalyanl (Teh.) Lagenaria vulgaris Ser.
Tukhm-i-kafshah (Teh., Ham.) Carthamus tinctorius L.
Tukhm-i-kahu (Teh.) Lactuca saliva L.
Tukhm-i-kalam (Teh.) Carum Petroselinum Benth. & Hook.
Tukhm-i-karafs (Teh.) Apium graveolens L.
Tukhm-i-kasni (Ham., Teh.) Cichorium Intybus L.
Tukhm-i-katan (Ait.) Linum usitatissimum L.
Tukhm-i-keshus (Pers.) Cuscuta planifolia Ten. and C. hyalina Roth
Tukhm-i-khabazi (Teh.) Malva sylvestris L. var. mauritiana Boiss.
Tukhm-i-khak-i-shir (Ham.) Erysimum repandum L.
Tukhm-i-khakshlr talkh Erysimum sp. (p. 171)
Tukhm-i-khardal (Teh., Ham.) Salvia sp.
Tukhm-i-khash khash Papaver somniferum L.
Tukhm-i-khatml (Isf.) Althaea sp.
Tukhm-i-khatmi Althaea lavateraefolia DC.
Tukhm-i-khiyar (Teh.) Cucumis sativus L.
Tukhm-i-kishavar (Ham., Isf.,
Teh.) Cuscuta planifolia Ten. and C. hyalina Roth
Tukhm-i-kushuth (Ham., Isf.,
Teh.) Cuscuta planifolia Ten. and C. hyalina Roth
Tukhm-i-lak-pusht (Teh.) Testudo horsfieldii Grey and T. graeca
Tukhm-i-lal'abbas (Teh.) Mirabilis Jalapa L.
Tukhm-i-livas (Ham., Teh.) Rheum Ribes L.
Tukhm-i-marv (Teh.) Salvia macrosiphon Boiss.
Tukhm-i-murd (Teh.) Myrtus communis L.
Tukhm-i-nil Ipomoea hederacea Jacq.
Tukhm-i-nllufar (Teh.) Ipomoea hederacea Jacq.
Tukhm-i-piyaz (Teh.) Allium Cepa L.
Tukhm-i-raihan (Ham., Teh.) Ocimum Basilicum L.
Tukhm-i-raziyanah (Teh., Ham.).. .Foeniculum vulgare Mill.
Tukhm-i-shabdar (Teh.) Trifolium repens L.
Tukhm-i-shaga'ig (Ham.) Papaver somniferum L.
Tukhm-i-shahl (Teh.) Lepidium sativum L.
Tukhm-i-shalgham (Teh.) Brassica campestris L. var. Napus Bab.
Tukhm-i-shambal!lah (Teh., Ham.) . Trigonella Foenum-graecum L.
Tukhm-i-sharbati (Ham., Teh.). . . .Ocimum canum Sims
Tukhm-i-shatarrah (Ham.) Fumaria parviflora Lam.
Tukhm-i-shivid (Teh.) Peucedanum graveolens Benth. & Hook.
Tukhm-i-siyah (Teh.) Nigella saliva Sibth.
Tukhm-i-tamr (Teh.) Tamarindus indica L.
Tukhm-i-tarrah (Teh.) Allium sativum L.
Tukhm-i-turi (Afg.) Luffa acutangula Roxb,
Tukhm-i-turubchah (Teh.) Raphanus sativus L.
Tukhm-makhtum (Punj.) Sigillated Earth
Tukhm-taj-i-khurus (Isf.) Amaranthus paniculatus L.
Tukhm tartizak (Isf.) Lepidium sativum L.
Tukhm-tatura (Pers.) Datura Stramonium L.
Tukhm-zaban-i-gun j ishk-i-talkh
(Pers.) Holarrhena antidysenlerica Wall.
240 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. IX
Tukhm zardak (Teh.) Daucus Carota L.
Tukhm zlreh (Teh.) Carum Bulbocastanum Koch
Tuklejah(?) (Ham.) Stachys germanica L.
Tumaku Nicotiana Tabacum L. and N. rustica L.
Tur (Kurd.) Raphanus sativus L.
Turb (Pers.) Raphanus sativus L.
Turbad (Leh) Ipomoea Turpethum R. Br.
Turbud (Teh.) Ipomoea Turpethum R. Br.
Turl (Teh.) Luff a acutangula Roxb.
Tut-i-dham (Pers.) Moms nigra L.
Tut-i-kushk (Teh.) Moms nigra L.
Tutun (Iraq) Nicotiana Tabacum L. and N. ruslica L.
Udasaliyun (Gr.) Apium graveolens L.
'Ud-i-balsan (Isf.) Commiphora opobalsamum Kunth
'Unnab (Iraq) Zizyphus vulgaris L.
'Unnab (Teh.) Zizyphus vulgaris L.
Urd (Ind.) Phaseolus radiatus L.
Urid (Ind.) Phaseolus radiatus L.
Uruk-el-kafur (Ar.) Curcuma Zedoaria Roxb. and C. Zerumbet
Ushna ushek (Pers.) Dorema Ammoniacum Don
Ustukhudus (Teh.) Lavandula dentata L.
Uurd (Abu Mansur) Myrtus communis L.
Uzarih (Turk.) Peganum Harmala L.
Valik (Teh.) Allium Akaka Gmel.
Vasha (Teh.) Dorema Ammoniacum Don
Vetiver (Tarn.) Vetiveria zizanioides Stapf
Vrishanasana (Sans.) Embelia Ribes Burm.
Warch (Punj.) Acorus Calamus L.
Ward (Ar.) Rosa damascena Mill.
Ward (Ar.) Rosa hemisphaerica Herm.
Ward-ash-shams (Iraq) Helianthus annuus L.
Wasma (Punj., Pers., Turkey) Indigofera tinctoria L.
Welec, See Valik
Weleque, See Valik
Winjah (Kurd.) Medicago saliva L.
Wodak (Bal.) Tulipa montana Lindl.
Wuda (Ar.) Cypraea moneta L.
Yunjah (Kurd.) Medicago sativa L.
Za'adi Phoenix dactylifera L.
Za'faran (Teh.) Crocus sativus L.
Zaeteran (Boiss.) Thymus sp.
Zafran (Ar.) Crocus sativus L.
Zagher (Ait., Afg.) Linum usitatissimum L.
Zahar (Iraq) Anamirta paniculata Coleb.
Zaitun Olea europea L.
Zaj-u-safld (Teh.) Alum
Zalil (Iran) Delphinium Zalil Ait. & Hemsl.
Zamchi (Turk.) Alum
Zanjabil chami Inula Helenium L.
Zanjabil-i-shami Inula Helenium L.
Zaravand-i-gird (Pers.) Aristolochia rotunda L.
PLANTS AND DRUGS OF IRAN AND IRAQ 241
Zaravand-i-tavll (Ham., Teh.) Aristolochia longa L.
Zard alu (Pers.) Prunus Armeniaca L.
Zard chobah (Pers.) Curcuma domestica Val. and C. longa Trim.
Zarishk (Hind., Bom.) Berberis vulgaris L.
Zarnab (Isf., Ar.) Taxus baccata L.
Zarnickh-i-dandan (Teh.) Arsenic Trisulphide
Zarnlkh (Teh.) Arsenic Trisulphide
Zarnikh-zard (Isf.) Arsenic Trisulphide
Zatar (Syr., Iraq) Thymus Serpyllum L. var. Kotschyanus Boiss.
Zatar (Teh.) Zataria multiflora Boiss. (also pp. 174, 178)
Zatar farisi (Boiss.) Thymus sp.
Ziniyan (Teh., Ham.) Carum copticum Benth. & Hook.
Zira (Hind.) Cuminum Cyminum L.
Zlrah-i-sabz (Isf., Iraq) Cuminum Cyminum L.
Zireh-siyah (Isf.) Carum Bulbocastanum Koch
Zirishk (Bagh.) Berberis vulgaris L.
Zirishk-i-guli (Ham., Teh.) Berberis vulgaris L.
Zirishk-tursh (Punj.) Berberis vulgaris L.
Ziwan (Iraq) Lolium rigidum Gaud.
Zufa (Teh.) Nepeta micrantha Bunge and N. ispahanica
Zufah-i-yabis (Ar.) Nepeta micrantha Bunge and N. ispahanica
Zuleh (Ham.) Gypsophila paniculata L.
Zuna (Teh.) Nepeta micrantha Bunge and N. ispahanica
Zunghari Pistacia Terebinthus L.
Zupha-e-yabis (Ar.) Hyssopus officinalis L. var. angustifolia Boiss.
Zuratspi (Kurd.) Sorghum vulgare Pers.
Zurraij (Iraq) Chrozophora verbascifolia Juss.
Zurunbad (Teh.) Curcuma Zedoaria Roxb. and C. Zerumbel
UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS-URBANA